The following is an unedited post created on our Tumblr page. You may find the original here.
We’re back! (But I’m sick T_T) I’ll try to get three a day released. That’ll keep us on schedule. All I ask is that you give me time to double back on these things before telling me where I’ve slipped. I guarantee you that the vast majority of what I say is true, but we’re human; and accidents happen.
Also, I will be writing each day’s 3 parts sequentially. So I’m cross referencing them. Tomorrow I’ll explain everything all over again and cross-reference accordingly. I can’t have people looking for part 19 when we’re at part 36, you know?
Anyway, the 3 parts for tonight are actually 3 different scenes. The scene here is of Konata and Tsukasa asking Miyuki about the differences between the cold and the flu in school.
(Miyuki: E? infuruenza to kaze no chigai desu ka?)
え (e): is an interjection meaning “what?”
インフルエンザ (infuruenza): is a loanword noun meaning “influenza.”
と (to): is a conjunction for noun phrases, translating in most cases to “and.”
風邪 (kaze): is a noun meaning “cold,” as in the illness.
の (no): is a genitive particle. The genitive is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship between two things. Normally “X no Y” translates to “Y of X.” In this case, this is, one might say, a comparative genitive, where “X to Y no Z” is translating to “the Z between Y and X.”
違い (chigai): is a verbal stem, or participle, of “chigau,” a verb meaning “to be different” or “to be wrong.” The verbal stem, however, is one of those that is not treated like a regular noun, and as a noun it means “difference.”
です (desu): is the polite, affirmative, present conjugation of the copula “da.” A copula is a verb that translates to “is,” to keep it simple.
か (ka): is an interrogative ending particle, making the whole sentence a question.
Translation: “What? The differences between influenza and the cold?”
うん (un): is an interjection meaning “yes.” Or if you want to make it more casual sounding, you can translate it as “yeah.”
(Miyuki: Etto desu ne. infuruenza wa wirusu-sei desu ga kounetsu, kinnikutsuu to zenshin shoujou ga ooku shikamo gappeishou no osore mo arimasu. ippou, kaze wa nodo no eishou ya hanamizu ga omode netsu wa sore hodo takaku narimasen. Sono hoka saibu no shoujou mo chigaimasu.)
えっと (etto): is an interjection meaning that one is thinking. One can translate it to “um.”
です (desu): is the same as before. One will notice that when one is trying to be polite, one will add “desu.” as the verb even when there is no relationship being established. So you don’t have to translate the “desu.” Just take it as marking politness.
ね (ne): is the dubitative/softening ending particle. It’s used a lot in Japanese just to make things sound nice.
インフルエンザ (infuruenza): is the same as before.
は (wa): is our topical particle. The topic particle marks the topic phrase, which is something that is independent of the rest of the sentence. Sometimes it’ll be translated as the subject of a sentence, but that should not be something you decide to do automatically.
ウィルス性 (wirusu-sei): is a noun meaning “viral.” “Wirusu” is a noun meaning “virus;” and “sei” is a suffix that means “kind” or “nature.” So this means something like “the nature of a virus.” Also worth noting: “ウィ” is a Japanese digraph one sees very rarely; and I’m writing it as “wi” just to differentiate it from “ui.” The other option I have is to transcribe it as “yu,” but that’s a bit strange, too.
です (desu): is the same as before, but now functioning as it should. “So influenza is viral.”
が (ga): is a conjunction that just connects two statements. Context will let you know whether it should be translated as “though” or “and.” Logically, “though” and “and” and “but” and “even though” are all the same things.
高熱 (kounetsu): is a noun meaning “high fever.”
筋肉痛 (kinnikutsuu): is a noun meaning “muscle pain.”
と (to): appears to be a special use of the conjunction “to.” What we’re talking about here are (spoiler) is full-body symptoms; and high fever and muscle pain are those kinds of things; so in this construction of “X to Y,” X is an example of Y. So what we’ll do, for now, is translate it as “such as” and then see what you all have to say on the matter.
全身 (zenshin): is a noun meaning “the whole body.” Here it’s being used adjectivally to modify “shoujou.”
症状 (shoujou): is a noun meaning “symptoms.”
が (ga): is our nominative particle, meaning it marks the subject of the sentence.
多く (ooku): is the adverbial form of “ooi,” an adjective (but it really isn’t) meaning “many” or “numerous.” The adverbial form, like the Te-form, can unite sentences. That’s what’s happening here.
しかも (shikamo): is a conjunction meaning “moreover.”
合併症 (gappeishou): is a noun meaning “complications.”
の (no): is our genitive particle.
恐れ (osore): is a noun meaning “fear.” It is the verbal stem of “osoreru,” meaning “to fear.”
も (mo): is a secondary conjunction meaning “too” or “also.” The primary conjunction is “ga,” which when next to “mo” gets dropped out.
あります (arimasu): is the copula “aru” conjugated for the polite, affirmative, present.
So, “Full-body symptoms such as high fever and muscle pain are many; moreover there are fears of complications.”
一方 (ippou): is another conjunction. This one is used to connect two parts of a whole idea. The idea in this case is the differences between the cold and the flu. Now we’re going to talk about the cold. This often gets translated as “on the other hand.”
風邪 (kaze): is the same as before.
は (wa): is our topical particle.
喉 (nodo): is a noun meaning “throat.”
の (no): is the genitive particle.
炎症 (enshou): is a noun meaning “irritation”
や (ya): is a coordinating conjunction that lets us know for that this is not an exhaustive list. So “X ya Y ya Z” means “X and Y and Z (and possibly other things).”
鼻水 (hanamizu): is a noun meaning “runny nose.”
が (ga): is the nominative particle.
主 (omo): is a noun meaning “the principle thing.”
で (de): is the Te-form, or gerund, of the copula “da.” Here it’s connecting sentences.
So, “On the other hand, the principle things for a cold are [things like] inflammation of the throat and a runny nose.”
熱 (netsu): is a noun meaning “fever.” It’s the same “netsu” in “kounetsu.”
は (wa): is the topical particle.
それほど (sore-hodo): is an expression coming from the noun “sore,” meaning “that,” and “hodo,” meaning “extent.” It means “to that extent.” That “that” here is referring to the high fever of influenza.
高く (takaku): is the adverbial form of the adjective “takai,” meaning “high.”
なりません (narimasen): is the polite, negative, present conjugation of “naru,” meaning “to become.” “X+adverb suffix” plus “naru” means “to become X.”
その他 (sono-hoka): is another expression meaning “other than that.” “Hoka” is a noun meaning “other” and “sono” is an adjective meaning “that.”
細部 (saibu): is a noun meaning “detail.”
の (no): is the attributive form of the copula “da.” That means that we’re talking about the symptoms that are details. (See that the previous noun modifies the following.) If it were the genitive marker, we’d be talking about the “symptoms of details,” which makes no sense. What we mean by symptoms that are details is that they’re more minor things.
症状 (shoujou): is the same as before.
も (mo): is the same secondary particle.
違います (chigaimasu): is the polite, affirmative, present conjugation of the verb “chigau,” which we spoke of before.
Translation: “Umm… Influenza is viral; and full-body symptoms such as high fever and muscle pain are numerous. Furthermore [there] are also fears of complications. On the other hand, the principle things being inflammation of the throat and a runny nose, fevers do not become that high. Other than that there are also differences in the symptoms that are details.”
ふーん (fuun): is a contemplative interjection, translating to “hmm.”
(Miyuki: Desu kara, kono futatsu wa chigau byouki desu yo.)
ですから (desu kara): is an expression, meaning “thus.” It comes from “desu,” which we’re familiar with, and “kara,” a post-position and conjunction meaning “because.” So it more literally means something like “because [it] is.”
この (kono): is like “sono” but with a different lexical stem, /ko/, meaning “this.”
ふたつ (futatsu): is a general counter noun meaning “two [things].” The “fu” is the native Japanese lexical stem for “two.” “Ni” is of Chinese origin.
は (wa): is our topical particle.
違う (chigau): is the same verb as before, now in its plain, affirmative, present conjugation.
病気 (byouki): is a noun meaning “illness.”
です (desu): is the same as before.
よ (yo): is the emphatic ending particle, often conveying that this is information the speaker wants the listener to learn/acknowledge/memorize.
Translation: “Thus, these two are illnesses that are different.”
(Konata: Naru hodoo)
なるほど (naruhodo): is another expression coming from “naru” and “hodo,” both of which we’ve spoken. How we get from “the extent that it becomes” to “I see…” is unclear, but it means something equivalent to “I see…” The extra “o” is added because she sustains the word, because she’s now saddened by the fact that they’re not really the same or even similar, it seems.
Translation: “I see…”
(Miyuki: De, desu ga maa, kasanaru bubun mo wari to aru no de kaze no sukeeru appu-ban to ienai koto mo… nai kamo…)
ですが (desu ga): is “desu” and the conjunction “ga.” It’s another conjunction meaning “however.”
まあ (maa): is an interjection that adds new information, often translated as “you might say.”
重なる (kasanaru): is a verb conjugated for the present, affirmative meaning “to overlap.”
部分 (bubun): is a noun meaning “part.”
も (mo): is the same secondary prefix as before.
割と (wari-to): is an adverb meaning “relatively.” It comes from “wari,” a noun meaning “split” and “to,” the quotative particle.
ある (aru): is the same verb we’ve seen before.
ので (no de): is the substantivizing suffix “no,” making the phrase syntactically a noun, and “de,” the instrumental particle being used as a marking the cause. This translates as “because.”
風邪 (kaze): is the same as before.
の (no): is the genitive particle.
スケールアップ版 (sukeeru appu-ban): is the loanword phrase “skeeru appu” meaning “scale up” or “upper tier” and the suffix “ban,” meaning “version” or “edition.”
と (to): is the quotative particle.
言えない (ienai): is the potential, negative, present conjugation of “iu,” meaning “to say.” This translates to “It is not possible to say” or “it is not impossible”
こと (koto): is a noun meaning “thing” and it often works like “no” in making the phrase a noun.
も (mo): is the same secondary particle as before. In our translation, to avoid two “too”’s, we’ll be translating this one as “as well.”
ない (nai): is the negative, present conjugation of “aru.”
かも (kamo): is the truncation of the expression “kamoshirenai,” which means “probably.”
Translation: “But, because you might say that there are, relatively, parts overlap, too, it is probably not impossible to say that [influenza] is an upper tier version of the cold, as well.”
Konata repeats herself, now much more cheerful because her initial assumption has been implicitly stated to not be a dumb assumption.
Translation: I see!
Words Worth Memorizing
インフルエンザ (infuruenza): influenza, the flue
風邪 (kaze): the cold
違い (chigai): difference
違う (chgau): to be different
うん (un): Yes
えっと (etto): Umm
です (desu): to be (polite)
ウィルス性 (wuirusu-sei): viral
熱 (netsu): cold
筋肉痛 (kinnikutsuu): muscle pain
全身 (zenshin): whole body
症状 (shoujou): symptom
多い (ooi): many, numerous
しかも (shikamo): moreover
恐れ (osore): fear
ある (aru): to be
一方 (ippou): on the other hand
喉 (nodo): throat
炎症 (enshou): inflammation
主 (omo): the main thing
それほど (sore hodo): to that extent
高い (takai): high
なる (naru): to become
その他 (sono hoka): other than that
ふーん (fuun): Hmm
ですから (desu kara): But…
ふたつ (futatsu): two things (general counter)
病気 (byouki): illness
なるほど (naru hodo): I see…
重なる (kasanaru): to overlap
部分 (bubun): part, section
言う (iu): to say
かもしれない (kamoshirenai): probably…