Welcome to a new format!
We have three sections in this new format. The text, the runthrough remarks, and the glossary. Click on the words you don’t know to read the glossary entry. Click the number of the phrase to see the runthough remarks.
We are currently employing some new terms for verbs. We are trying to find shorthand terms for conjugations we see all the time. If you find them too confusing, let us know! This is a time to try out different things!
Massugu uses the pseudo-copula na to modify omoi. With ga, “massugu-na omoi“constitutes the subject of the sentence. Minna with wo constitutes the direct object. Our verb is musubu, in N-conjugation.
For translation purposes, you may want to supply an “of us” next to “all.” The song seems to imply that it is about the singers themselves.
Demo is a conjunction. It comes from the Te-form of the copula da and the secondary particle mo, meaning “too” or “even.”
We’re allowed to supply an “it is” for translation purposes. One could also say “Though [it is] serious” if one wants to.
Butsukari is the participial form of butsukaru. Here it is conjunctival, linking a series of actions together. So we have butsukari and au. We could also take it adverbially, meaning that au occurs in a manner of butsukaru.
Mitai is the desiderative conjugation of miru.
Ookina is one of the very few adjectives in Japanese. You will note, nevertheless, that it seems to be some combination of ookii and the pseudo-copula na. The reason we call it an adjective is because it cannot act as a noun, in predicative position.
If one wants to marks the topical particle as topical in translation, that is to say, to give it a lexical translation, one may say “on the subject of “ or “as for.” It is very rarely necessary, but it may help you remember to not think of this as the subject.
Hajimatta is the NP conjugation of hajimaru.
This is the TPPN conjugation of wakaru.
In Japanese, we’ve noticed that several noetic verbs tend to be said with progressive aspect to express that the action is currently taking place in the mind. So wakatteru is expressing that the act of understanding is occurring right now.
When it is expressed in the perfect tense, it means that the explanation/lesson has been given and that the mental exercise has been completed. That also gets translated as “I understand.”
Nai is the NegN-conjugation of the copula aru. Ja is normally seen only with nai.
Tamerasareru is the PasN-conjugation of the verb tamesu.
This is the same as verse 5.
Kurushisa is the adjectival verb kurushii with the suffix -sa substituting the semi-copula -i. The -sa suffix makes adjectival verbs nouns- it is a nominalizing suffix.
The mo particle has caused the topical particle wa to drop out.
Mirai has no case particle, but it would be the dative ni, serving a directional function. We have supplied a to in our translation to reflect that.
One does not need to translate n lexically. But if one wants to do so, one can say “it is that” or “it is the case that.”
We have translated iku as future tense, which we are allowed to do because the imperfective tense, which is what it is in Japanese, is ambiguous as to whether it is present or future.
Atsumattara is the -ra conditional of atsumaru. The -ra conditional often expresses a natural consequence. X-ra happens, and Y (naturally) happens. “If I drop an egg, it will break.” Because of this, it is often translated as “when” when it is is understood that X will or does, in fact, happen.
A more literal translation of this phrase would be “When we gather, we start to become ourselves, who are strong.” There is no way of making that not sound awkward in English, so we have taken a liberty with the pronoun putting the adjectival verb between the two parts of “ourselves.”
The use of the Te-form here is conjunctival. It links two actions together, in this case, “kawari tsudzukete” and “We’ll be star [sic.]” So one changes and one will be a star.
The use of the instrumental de here is curious. It marks the medium by which one tries one’s best, but it is also on a semantic the thing one is trying one’s best from. In the song, they’re referring to their idol act and the singing and dancing involved.
Suki is a noun that tends to be glossed over. “X wa Y ga suki desu” is the paradigm usually taught as translating to “X likes Y.” But what’s really going on is that suki is a noun (with an adjectival meaning) and what you’re actually saying is “As for X, Y is liked (by X).” It’s important to keep the syntactic structure in mind.
Ganbareru is in the potential mood. The potential mood indicates whether something can or cannot happen, as opposed to the indicative mood (all the N-conjugations are indicative) which marks whether something does or does not happen. Hence it is translated as “can X.”
Note that we are translating the copula da as future tense.
Note that “sorezore no suki na koto” can’t quite translate to “beloved thing of each” because that is not grammatical. Instead, English would use “to.”
Daite, the Te-form of daku, is conjunctival.
Susumeru is in the potential mood, like ganbareru in verse 12. Note that the mood applies to both daite and susumeru.
A more literal translation of kowagaru kuse would be “a habit that is being fearful.”
Chae is the imperative conjugation of chau. Here it means “to complete,” which is a bit of an awkward translation, but it means to do something completely.
The Te-form here is imperative.
Tataku is the adverbial conjugation of takai. The adverbial form is made by putting the suffix -ku in place of the semi-copula -i.
One can translation “ima no naka de” as just “in the present moment” but we translated it as we did to reflect the syntactic structure as the original Japanese. The exact location with location nouns tends to be in the genitive (the middle of X, under Y, to the right of Z, etc.)
Hashirou is the volitional conjugation of hashiru. The volitional mood in Japanese is very often cohortative, inviting the listener to do something with the speaker: “Let us…”
“Yousou dekinai chikara” is a rather odd phrase. It does actually translate to “an ability that cannot predict.” Verb phrases that precede nouns always modify the noun.
We have supplied an “it is” because we are lacking a subject and a copula.
This is a case of word scrambling. The order it would normally be in is “nanimokamo zenbu ga kore kara da yo.”
If you want to omit nanimokamo in your translation because semantically it is redundant — zenbu meaning something very similar — you can do that.
This is the same as verse 5.
This dative is the dative of time.
Muite is the Te-form of muku, functioning conjunctively.
Miyou is the volitional conjugation of miru, functioning cohortatively.
This is the same as verse 5.
To express “to become X” where X is an adjectival verb, the adjectival verb will take its adverbial form.
Nare seems to be a variation of the N-conjugation (poetic licensing).
We are assuming in our translation that verses 23 and 25 are connected, i.e. the listener is told to look up, and up there lies the world that will become more wonderful.
This is merely an adjectival verb with a substantivizing dependent noun. Nothing worth noting here.
Yadoshitai is the desiderative conjugation of yadosu. All things expressing inner thoughts and desires in Japanese are taken to be very personal. If one wants to express the thoughts of desires of others, one must say something like “it appears he/she wants…” So any time you see a desiderative conjugation that is not in a subordinate clause, then you know it is about the speaker him/herself.
Kisoiaou is the volitional conjugation of kisoiau, functioning cohortatively.
We have translated “fukukaeru hima” as “free time to look back” instead of as “free time that looks back.” This is because the latter sounds awkward in English and in Japanese this is how “free time (to do X)” is expressed in Japanese. It’s quite common.
We have translated sa as an exclamation mark. Sa is quite strong. Stronger than yo, certainly. We tend to advise against translating yo as an exclamation mark because it is so common and exclamation marks are uncommon, but we believe translation sa with an exclamation mark is often appropriate because of its strength and rarity.
This is another case of scrambling. It would otherwise read “Dokomademo kimi to hirogaru yo.”
Kanjite iru is the PPN-conjugation of kanjiru. This is like wakaru that uses the progressive aspect for the same reason.
The use of e here is a bit peculiar. The object of shigeki tends to take the dative. The use of the locative here seems to be an artistic license.
The use of the attributive no here should not be confused for a compound particle.
Moriagatte’ku has the same conjugation as natte’ku in verse 10.
Kesanai de is a truncation of the polite negative request expression “Vnai de kudasai.” What exactly that de is, we are unsure. We believe it is the instrumental particle and that this use of a case particle with a verb phrase implies that there used to be a no between the verb and the de, but that is speculative.
This is largely the same as verse 17.
Note the rare use of the accusative particle wo to mark movement through.
What part of speech hodo is exactly is hard to identify. It works adverbially inasmuch as it modifies a verb phrase, but it itself is modified by an inflexional phrase. What it “X hodo Y” means is that Y happens to the extent that X happens. Jay Rubin has pointed out that it’s like the Johnny Carson jokes, “It’s so hot that…X” or “She’s so old that…X” So if you’re old enough to remember Johnny Carson you’ll have a nice reference point.
Here what’s being expressed is that the more the dream grows, the more they are put the test. And that makes sense, right?
Norikire is probably a variation of the N-conjugation, like nare in verse 25.
Sugite is conjunctival here.
We have supplied an “it is” because of a lack of a copula.
Ikou is the volitional conjugation, which is once again functioning cohortatively.
This is the same as verse 12.
This is the same as verse 13.
This is the same as verse 14.
This is the same as verse 15.
This is the same as verse 16.
This sentence is a shorter version of verse 34.
This is the same as verse 33.
This is the same as verse 17.
Matte’ta is the TPPN- conjugation of matsu.
Desiderative conjugation — the conjugation made by adding -tai to the participial conjugation.
-eba conditional — the conditional conjugation formed by using -eba in place of the final temporal/polar suffix (-u or -i.) Note that when it takes the place of -i, a series of underlying letters will appear to create -kereba.
Imperative conjugation — the imperative conjugation formed by placing the suffix -e in place of the final temporal/polar suffix. In the case of the so-called -ru verbs, the suffix is -yo or -ro.
N-conjugation — the “normal” conjugation. This is also sometimes called the “dictionary form,” or the indicative, active, imperfective, affirmative.
NegN-conjugation — the “negative normal conjugation,” like the “normal conjugation” in all aspects except negative.
NP-conjugation — the “normal perfect” conjugation. This is the same as the “normal” conjugation, except with perfect tense.
PasN-conjugation — the “passive normal” conjugation. This is the same as the “normal” conjugation, except with passive voice.
PPN-conjugation – the “periphrastic progressive normal” conjugation. This is the Te-form of a verb plus the copula iru, giving the verb progressive aspect. Otherwise, it has all the other characteristics of an N-conjugation.
-ra conditional — the conditional created through the indicative perfect conjugation of a verb plus the -ra suffix
TPPN-conjugation — the “truncated periphrastic progressive normal” conjugation. This is the Te-form of a verb plus the copula iru, giving the verb progressive aspect. Otherwise, it has all the other characteristics of an N-conjugation. The truncation comes from the /i/ in iru dropping out.
Volitional conjugation — the conjugation created by using the -ou suffix in place of the polar/temporal suffix. For the so-called ru verbs, the suffix will be -you. (What really happens is that the suffix is always -you, but the /y/ is only visible in the underlying form. There is an underlying vowel that -ru verbs have that makes that /y/ appear.)
ある (aru) — (verb) copula. This copula is used for non-animated objects. It, and iru, are used to express the existence of a thing. The negative pole of aru is nai.
明日 (ashita) — (noun) tomorrow
新しい (atarashii) — (adjectival verb) new
熱い (atsui) — (adjectival verb) hot (to the touch)
集まる (atsumaru) — (verb) to come together
合う (au) — (verb) to come together, to merge
ばかり (bakari) — (suffix) only, merely
場所 (basho) — (noun) place, location
僕 (boku) — (pronoun) masculine first-person singular pronoun. To pluralize it, one uses the suffix -ra.
不器用 (bukiyou) — (noun) unskilled, awkward, clumsy [na]
ぶつかる (butsukaru) — (verb) to clash, to collide with
ちゃう (chau) — (verb) to complete X, for X to happen and it to be an inconvenience
ちから (chikara) — (noun) power, ability
だ (da) — (verb) copula. Establishes a relationship of identity or categorization between two things. “X is Y.” Contrast this to aru and iru, which only establish the existence of a thing. “There is an X.”
だろう (darou) — (ending particle) verbal expression acting as an ending particle. Essentially equivalent to ne, being dubitative, if only more casual.
だけ (dake) — (suffix) only
抱く (daku) — (verb) to embrace
だって (datte) — (conjunction) though, still. This is a verbal expression, with the copula da and the causal topical particle tte
で (de) — (inflection particle) instrumental particle. The instrumental case marks the means by which (tools) or the reason for which an action is performed. It will also mark company from time to time, with whom something is done.
で (de) — (post-position) at, in. It marks a location (or sometimes time)
できる (dekiru) — (verb) to be able to do. This is the verb used in lieu of a potential conjugation of suru, the verb meaning “to do.”
でも (demo) — (conjunction) though. From the Te-form of the copula da and secondary particle mo, meaning, “too” or “even.”
どこまでも (dokomademo) — (adverb) anywhere. From dokomade (from the pronoun doko and the post-position made) and the suffix mo.
へ (e) — (inflection particle) locative particle. The location case marks a direction towards, which is a function it shares with the dative particle.
笑顔 (egao) — (noun) smile
振り返る (furikaeru) — (verb) to look back
が (ga) — (inflection particle) nominative particle. The nominative case mainly marks the subject of an inflexional phrase. It will on occasion mark the direct object of a verb in an emphatic sense.
頑張る (ganbaru) — (verb) to do one’s best, to persist
ゴール (gooru) — (noun) goal
ぐっと (gutto) — (adverb) firm(ly)
走る (hashiru) — (verb) to run
始まった (hajimaru) — (verb) to begin, to start
暇 (hima) — (noun) free time
広がる (hirogaru) — (verb) to spread out
必然 (hitsuzen) — (noun) necessary [no]
ほど (hodo) — (noun) extent, degree (We are still undecided about what exactly this word is. It is probably an adverb as well as a noun, but we do not want to say for sure yet.)
本気 (honki) — (noun) truth; serious [na/no]
欲しい (hoshii) — (adjectival verb) wanted, desired
行く (iku) — (verb) to go; (with Te-form) to start to X, to go on X-ing
今 (ima) — (noun/adverb) now; the present moment
じゃ (ja) — contracted form of the compound particle de wa, which is equivalent to the topical wa.
自分 (jibun) — (pronoun) oneself, myself (reflexive pronoun)
勝ち (kachi) — (noun) victory
輝き (kagayaki) — (noun) radiance
賭け (kake) — (noun) gamble
悲しい (kanashii) — (adjectival verb) sad
考える (kangaeru) — (verb) to think about, to consider
感じる (kanjiru) — to have a feeling, to feel, to sense
から (kara) — (conjunction) because
から (kara) — (post-position) from, after
消す (kesu) — (verb) to extinguish, to turn off; to erase
変わる (kawaru) — (verb) to change, to be transformed
気分 (kibun) — (noun) feeling
君 (kimi) — (pronoun) masculine second person pronoun
奇跡 (kiseki) — (noun) miracle
競い合おう (kisoiau) — (verb) to compete for. From kisou, meaning “to vie for” and au, meaning “to meet.”
期待 (kitai) — (noun) hope, expectation
きっと (kitto) — (adverb) surely, undoubtedly
ここ (koko) — (pronoun) here
こころ (kokoro) — (noun) mind, heart (not the biological organ)
これ (kore) — (pronoun) this (thing)
こそ (koso) — (secondary particle) for sure
こと (koto) — (noun) thing. Sometimes it is used like the dependent nouns no and n.
恐がる (kowagaru) — (verb) to be fearful; to be shy
苦しい (kurushii) — (adjectival verb) difficult, painful
癖 (kuse) — (noun) habit
真っ直ぐ (massugu) — (noun) honest, direct, straightforward [na]
待つ (matsu) — (verb) to wait; to look forward to
未完成 (mikansei) — (noun) complete [na]
みんな (minna) — (noun) everyone, all
ミライ (mirai) — (noun) the (distant) future
見る (miru) — (verb) to see
も (mo) — (secondary particle) too, even. This particle will cause wa, wo, and ga to drop out if it follows any of them.
盛り上がる (moriagaru) — (verb) to swell, to rise
もっと (motto) — (adverb) more
向く (muku) — (verb) to face, to turn towards
胸 (mune) — (noun) chest
無謀 (mupou) — (noun) reckless [na]
結ぶ (musubu) — (verb) to bind, to link
ん (n) — substantivizing dependent noun. It makes the entire verb phrase syntactically a noun.
なか (naka) — (noun) the middle, the center, in
何もかも (nanimokamo) — (adverb) anything and everything. From nanimo (from nani and the secondary suffix mo) and the secondary suffix kamo
なんて (nante) — (suffix) something like…
なら (nara) — (conjunction) if
なる (naru) — (verb) to become
ね (ne) — (ending particle) dubitative ending particle. Expresses a desire for a confirmation from the user. Often it will soften a statement. It is often translated to “,right?” or “isn’t it?”
に (ni) — (inflectional particle) dative particle. The dative case marks the location for the copulae aru and iru. It marks the direction of verbs involving movement. It marks the exact time of an action. It marks the indirect object, and the direct object of certain verbs. It marks the manner in which something is done.
の (no) — (case particle) genitive particle. The genitive case marks categorization or possession. It will in subordinating clauses at times mark the subject of the very subordinate clause. “X no Y” tends to translate to “Y of X” and even when it doesn’t it puts one in a good ballpark of what it should be.
の (no) — (verb) attributive form of the copula da. When a copula is needed in a verb phrase that is modifying a noun phrase, one uses no.
乗り切る (norikiru) — (verb) to overcome, to get over; to sail across
起こる (okoru) — (verb) to occur
想い (omoi) — (noun) thought; desire
温度 (ondo) — (noun) temperature
大きい (ookii) — (adjectival verb) large, big
大きな (ookina) — (adjective) big, large
さ (sa) — (ending particle) masculine emphatic ending particle. It also finds its way to other parts of the sentence from time to time, where it emphasizes the preceding phrase.
さよなら (sayorana) — (interjection) “goodbye.” From sayounara. This is a combination of “sa,” which is an adjective meaning “that;” “you” is a suffix meaning “like;” and “nara, the conditional conjunction. This means something like “If that’s the way it is.”
セカイ (sekai) — (noun) world
刺激 (shigeki) — (noun) stimulus
信じる (shinjiru) — (verb) to believe in, to trust in
その (sono) — (adjective) that. This is not really an adjective. This is a morpheme, /so/, and the attributive form of the copula da, no.
それでも (soredemo) — (conjunction) Even so, nevertheless. From the pronoun sore, meaning “that thing” and demo.
それなら (sorenara) — (conjunction) if that is so. This comes from the pronoun “sore” and the conditional conjunction “nara.”
それぞれ (sorezore) — (pronoun) each. This is the pronoun sore twice. Literally, “that that”
素晴らしい (subarashii) — (adjectival verb) wonderful
すぎる (sugiru) — (verb) (tends to work with the stem of another verb preceding it) to X in excess, to X too much
好き (suki) — (noun) liked, beloved [na]
進む (susumu) — (verb) to move forward, to advance
捨てる (suteru) — (verb) to throw away
高い (takai) — (adjectival verb) high; expensive
試す (tamesu) — to attempt; to test; to try out
楽しい (tanoshii) — (adjectival verb) fun
と (to) — (functional particle) quotative particle. This particle marks a subordinate clause, expressing the object of a verb. These verbs tend to be about thoughts and utterances. The quotative particle will also mark certain adverbs, mostly onomatopoeia.
と (to) — (inflection particle) comitative particle. The comitative case marks the person with whom something is done. It has limited uses.
とびきり (tobikiri) — (noun) extraordinary, exceptional [no]
跳ぶ (tobu) — (verb) to fly; to jump
時 (toki) — (noun) time
ときめき (tokimeki) — (noun) throbbing; thrill, excitement
とまる (tomaru) — (verb) to stop
続ける (tsudzukeru) — (verb) to continue; (with participial form) to continue to X
上 (ue) — (noun) top, above, up
は (wa) — (inflection particle) topical particle. The topical case marks the topic of the sentence. In certain cases, mostly when the topic and the subject of the sentence are on a semantic level the same, in translation, the topical phrase is made into the subject (Japanese sentences do not need a subject. Many other languages, such as English, do.)
わかる (wakaru) — to understand, to be known
を (wo) — (inflection particle) accusative particle. The accusative case mainly marks the direct object of a verb. It will on a few occasions mark a thing through which another thing has moved.
宿す (yadosu) — (verb) to carry; to keep within
よ (yo) — (ending particle) serves to emphasize a point. Also conveys that this is information the listener should remember.
より (yori) — (post-position) (rather) than
予想 (yosou) — (noun) expectation; prediction [suru]
弱気 (yowaki) — (noun) timid, shy [na]
夢 (yume) — (noun) dream
全部 (zenbu) — (noun) all, the whole