Truncation- Truncation is when a part of the suffixes needed for conjugation is dropped out. Truncations tend to be /i/’s from iru and iku dropping out.
Periphrastic Progressive- Periphrastic refers to a conjugation involving more than one verb, where one of the verbs is not really being used semantically but functionally for a conjugation. Progressive is a matter of aspect, referring to how we imagine actions occurring through time. Japanese verbs tend to be simple in aspect, “He eats,” “She sang.” Progressive aspect is more akin to “He is eating,” “She was singing.” In Japanese, you create progressive aspect with the Te-form and the copula iru.
Indicative- describes something that either did, does, or will happen in time
Potential- describes something that can or cannot happen
Desiderative- describes a desire for something to happen
Imperative- describes a command
Volitional- describes a desire for the speaker, or for the listener, to do something. It can act as an equivalent to an imperative, or as a cohortative, which expresses a call for both the speaker and the listener to do something.
Japanese has 2 suffixes we’ll call imperatives
1st Imperative- -e suffix
2nd Imperative- -nasai suffix
Conditional- posits the condition for an occurrence. These act more like lexical suffixes than they do functional suffixes because they appear as the last suffix, not the first
-eba Conditional – focuses of the condition
-tara Conditional – focuses on the result
Active- The subject does the action
Passive- The subject is done something by an agent, normally in the dative
Affirmative- the verb’s action is true or real
Negative- the verb’s action is untrue or unreal
Imperfect- the action happens in the present or in the future
Perfect- the action has already occurred
Te-form a special conjugation for verbs, which tends to end in -te, whereby the verb can perform some special functions
1) Conjunctive- the verb identities itself as one in a sequence of actions. (When a Te-form verb attaches itself to another verb immediately thereafter, as is often the case with oku, ageru, kureru, morau, and shimau, it is essentially performing a conjunctive function.)
2) Gerund- the verb phrase acts like a noun
3) Imperative- the verb is a command
4) Conditional/Temporal- in this case, the Te-form is acting a lot like a participle. It refers to a state or condition in which the action is done.
あげる (ageru) — (verb) to give; [with Te-form] to do X for that person’s benefit, that person not being the speaker or his/her cohorts.
ありがとう (arigatou) — (verbal expression) Thank you. It has many variants, including the more formal どうもありがとうございます (doumo arigatou gozaimasu), which involves an adverb and a verb, and the shorter ありがと (arigato).
ある (aru) — (verb) copula. This copula is used for non-animated objects. It, and iru, are used to express the existence of a thing. The negative pole of aru is nai. [With Te-form] to be left X, to be set up as X, to be in the state of X
ばくだん (bakudan) — (noun) bomb
場所 (basho) — (noun) place
ぶち壊す (buchikowasu) — (verb) to destroy
ぶつかる (butsukaru) — (verb) to bump into
ビュンビュン (byun byun) — (adverb) whirling, describing the sound of the rushing wind [to]
ちょっぴり (choppiri) — (adverb) small, a small bit, hopelessly insignificant
だ (da) — (verb) copula, to be. This is the copula that connects and categorizes two things. “X ga Y da.” translates to “X is Y.” The attributive form of this copula is no.
だって (datte) — (conjunction) although, even though
だろう (darou) — (verbal expression – ending particle) expresses that the sentence is some kind of a conjecture or idea. It is not too different from the dubitative particle ne.
どっち (docchi) — (pronoun) which one? which?
ふい (fui) — (noun) sudden, unexpected
二つ (futatsu) — (counter) two (general object counter)
が (ga) — (case particle) nominative particle. The nominative case mainly marks the subject of an inflexional phrase. It will on occasion mark the direct object of a verb in an emphatic sense.
元気 (genki) — (noun) energetic, lively, well
微笑み (hohoemi) — (noun) smile
イコール (ikooru) — (noun) equals sign
今 (ima) — (adverb) now
いつまでも (itsumademo) —(adverb) forever
果てる (hateru) — (verb) to end, to reach its limit
人v (hito) — (noun) person. Pluralizing suffix: -tachi (達)
人ぐみ (hitogumi) — (noun) crowd of people
ひとりぼっち (hitoribocchi) — (noun) loneliness, solitude [no]
壁 (kabe) — (noun) wall, barrier
回 (kai) — (counter) times
書く (kaku) — (verb) to write, to draw
隠す (kakusu) — (verb) to hide
肩 (kata) — (noun) shoulder
風 (kaze) — (noun) wind
数 (kazu) — (noun) number
きびしい (kibishii) — (adjectival verb) stern, strict
唇 (kuchibiru) — (noun) lips
比べる (kuraberu) — (verb) to compare
来る (kuru) — (verb) to come, [with Te-form] to come to X, to start to X
苦しい (kurushii) — (adjectival verb) painful, difficult
まで (made) — (post-position) up to, to, until
まる (maru) — (noun) circle
メチャメチャ (mecha mecha) — (adverb) terribly, disturbingly, done to the extreme
見せる (miseru) – (verb) to show
泣く (naku) — (verb) to cry
何 (nani/nan) — (pronoun) what?
なる (naru) — (verb) to become; [with adverbial constructions] to start to X
なぜか (nazeka) — (adverb) for some reason, for whatever reason (this is the adverb naze with the indefinite suffix -ka)
ね (ne) — (ending particle) dubitative ending particle. Expresses a desire for a confirmation from the user. Often it will soften a statement. It is often translated to “right?” or “isn’t it?” Variant: な (na), じゃない (ja nai), verbal expression
に (ni) — (case particle) dative particle. The dative case marks the location for the copulae aru and iru. It marks the direction of verbs involving movement. It marks the exact time of an action. It marks the indirect object, and the direct object of certain verbs. It marks the manner in which something is done, this is the function that often gets translated adverbially.
の (no) — (case particle) genitive particle. The genitive case marks categorization or possession. It will in subordinating clauses at times mark the subject of the very subordinate clause. “X no Y” tends to translate to “Y of X” and even when it doesn’t it puts one in a good ballpark of what it should be.
の (no) — (dependent noun) a substantivizing dependent noun. It makes the preceding verb phrase syntactically a noun. Common variant: ん (n) One need not translate this lexically, but if one must, one might go with “the case is that” or “the fact of the matter is that” or something of that kind. These dependent nouns are used often to indicate a main point when found at the end of a sentence (and it is not really necessary otherwise.)
乗り越える (norikoeru) — (verb) to overcome, to surpass
多い (ooi) — (adjectival verb) numerous, (numerically) large, many
おとな (otona) — (noun) adult
り (ri) — (substantivizing suffix) lists items in a non-exhaustive list of items. The item list ends in suru.
さ (sa) — (suffix) adds an extra song emphasis on that word. It causes various cases particles to drop out.
さ (sa) — (substantivizing suffix) takes the place of the temporal/polar suffix in adjectival verbs to make them nouns.
叫ぶ (sakebu) — (verb) to cry, to shout
さようなら (sayounara) — (expression) from “sayou nara,” meaning “if [it is] so/like that” Used as a way of saying goodbye to someone for a very long time. Variant: さよなら (sayonara)
せい (sei) — (noun) cause, reason. Seen in “Xのせいだ “Due to X”
草原 (sougen) — (noun) field, meadow
する (suru) — (verb) to do
楽しい (tanoshii) — (adjectival verb) fun
と (to) — (particle) quotative particle, marks quotations of thoughts, speech, hearings, etc.
と (to) — (inflection particle) comitative particle. The comitative case marks the person with whom something is done. It has limited uses. It also serves as a parallel conjunctive function, which will translate to “and.
都会 (tokai) — (noun) city
時 (toki) — (noun) time
つける (tsukeru) — (verb) to affix, to add, to draw a simple figure for non-aesthetic purposes (like a line on a map.)
裏側 (uragawa) — (noun) backside, behind
は (wa) — (case particle) topical particle. The topical case marks the topic of the sentence. In certain cases, mostly when the topic and the subject of the sentence are on a semantic level the same, in translation, the topical phrase is made into the subject (Japanese sentences do not need a subject. Many other languages, such as English, do.)
忘れる (wasureru) — (verb) to forget.
を (wo) — (case particle) accusative particle. The accusative case mainly marks the direct object of a verb. It will on a few occasions mark a thing through which another thing has moved.
やさしい (yasashii) — (adjectival verb) kind, gentle
よ (yo) — (ending particle) emphatic ending particle. Marks extra intensity, or marks new information brought to the conversation
よろしく (yoroshiku) — (greeting expression) from yoroshii, meaning “good.” A truncation of “yoroshiku onegai shimasu” よろしくおねがいします meaning “I request well,” which is a way to say “I ask you to treat me well.” It is the conclusive expression when one is introducing oneself.