Welcome to the Sailor Moon Runthrough!
This runthrough is done in a relatively new format, where you have everything in one place. You will find everything in three main sections: Episode Script, Runthrough, and Glossary.
In the Glossary Section: you will find a Lore Guide, Essential Grammar Reference (case particles and things of the sort), and Vocabulary List. Don’t worry too much about this, because the links will all take you to where you need to be.
You’ll also notice some words in orange, these are interjections and loanwords that we will not be translating because they’re really not worth it.
Episode Sneak Peek — Montage — Usagi’s voice
2 ウサギ：そしてついに ゾイサイトとタキシード仮面さまの 一騎打ちが…
3 ウサギ：ああ～ もう どうなってるの！
4 ウサギ：とにかく今の あたしにできることは悪を倒すことだけよ！
5 ウサギ：月にかわって おしおきよ！
Opening Theme, “Moonlight Densetsu”
18 信じているの ミラクル・ロマンス
Episode Intro — Pervious Episode Montage — Usagi’s voice
20 ウサギ：そのわなに まんまと はまって私たちも大ピンチ。
21 ウサギ：タキシード仮面さまもケガをしちゃって もう 大変！
Scene 1 — Warehouse-Night — Usagi, Ami, Rei, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Artemis
25 マコト：セーラーＶ、いえ、 セーラーヴィーナス。
27 ミナコ：いいえ、あたしは あなたたちと同じプリンセスを守る戦士の一人。
28 ウサギ：ウソみたい… 憧れのセーラーＶちゃんが 目の前にいる。
31 アルテミス：ところでせっかく集まったのに なんだけど僕たちはある場所の調査中なんだ。
Scene 2 — Dark Lair – Night — Queen Beryl, Zoisite, Kunzite
38 ゾイサイト：あと一歩で 虹水晶を奪い取りタキシード仮面にとどめを…
42 クイン･ベリル：生きたまま ここへ連れてまいれ。
Scene 3 — Mamoru’s Apartment – Night — Mamoru, Zoisite (on TV)
51 ゾイサイト：あら、 正体さえ分かってしまえば調べは すぐにつきますわ、マモルちゃん。
57 マモル：いいぜ 受けて立とうじゃないか。
59 ゾイサイト：場所はベイエリアの超高層ビルスターライトタワーで どうかしら？
Scene 4 — Tokyo Streets – Afternoon — Usagi, Mamoru, Rei (imagination)
63 ウサギ：そんじゃ、先生、 さようなら！
67 レイ：もう！ドジ グズ、 のろま、スカタン！
68 ウサギ：うん？ あれは…
69 ウサギ：な～に 落ち込んでんのよ！
70 マモル： いてっ！
80 ウサギ：血だ… いつの間に？
82 ウサギ：アイツ… ケガしてんの？
Scene 5 — Bay Area Alley – Dusk — Mamoru, Usagi
94 ウサギ：ちょっと、こら！ 待ちなさいよ～
97 ウサギ：ヤダ！何これ？ ウッソ～！
98 マモル：バカ！ なんでついてきた？
Scene 6 — Shrine – Twilight — Rei, Makoto, Ami, Minako
100 レイ：いくら グズの うさぎでも遅すぎるわね。
116 ウサギ：うさぎちゃんが そういうコならあたしだって苦労してないわ。
117 ミナコ：とにかく スターライトタワーへ急ぎましょう！
Scene 7 — Starlight Tower – Night — Mamoru, Zoisite, Usagi
134 ウサギ：どうして ゾイサイトとアイツが？
135 ゾサイト：虫けらめ よくも私の顔に…覚えてらっしゃい！
136 ゾイサイト：地場マモル、虹水晶を取り戻したければ最上階の展望室まで おいで。
137 ウサギ：虹水晶？ どうしてこの人が虹水晶のことを…
144 ウサギ：早く開け！ この～
147 ウサギ：ヤダ～ 何これ？
Scene 8 — Outside Starlight Tower – Night — Ami, Rei, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Atremis
153 アミ：扉は… 全部封鎖されているわ。
157 マコト：シュープリーム サンダー！
158 マコト：強行突破あるのみ 行くぞ！
Scene 9 — Starlight Tower, Top Floor – Night — Zoisite, Kunzite
160 ゾイサイト：虹水晶は集めたし地場マモルも もはや手の内。
Scene 10 — Elevator – Night — Usagi, Mamoru
166 ウサギ：あっ… ごめん 話したくなければ\Nそれでもいいのよ。
Flashback — Hospital- Night — Young Mamoru, Doctor
172 医者：一人息子の衛君は 奇跡的に命を取り留めたのですが…
175 マモル：僕は… 誰なの？
178 ウサギ：銀水晶を… 幻の銀水晶をお願い。
179 マモル：俺は 銀水晶を手に入れ過去を取り戻したいんだ。
181 ウサギ：あたしあんたのこと世界で１番やなヤツって思ってたけど２番目くらいに…しといてあげるわよ 。
182 マモル： サンキュー。
185 ウサギ：うん、絶対 ないわよ。
Scene 11 — Starlight Tower, Top Floor – Night — Kunzite
186 くんざいと：セーラー戦士ども、ここが 貴様らにふさわしい死に場所だ。
Scene 12 — Starlight Tower, Somewhere inside – Night — Rei, Ami, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Artemis
Scene 13 — Starlight Tower Transformed, Elevator – Night — Usagi, Mamoru, Zoisite
193 ウサギ：でも…このままじゃ 二人とも死んじゃう。
194 ウサギ：ムーン プリズムパワーメイクアップ！
Scene 14 — Starlight Tower Transformed, Top Floor – NIght — Usagi, Mamoru, Zoisite, Ami, Rei, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Artemis
201 ウサギ：このセーラームーンが月にかわって おしおきよ！
202 ゾイサイト： セーラームーン、タキシード仮面と 一緒に\N片づけてあげるわ。
Cutaway — Usagi’s Memories — Mamoru
216 ウサギ：ダメ！ だって ケガしてるのに…
217 ウサギ：タキシード仮面さまこそ 逃げて！
218 マモル：セーラームーン 君は私が守る。
220 ゾイサイト：じゃれるのは そのくらいにして今度こそ決着をつけようじゃないの、タキシード仮面。
221 マモル：いいだろう。ただし セーラームーンには手出しをしないと\N約束してもらおう。
225 ウサギ：しっかり しっかりして！
226 マモル：ケガは ないか、セーラームーン？
235 ルナ：あれが 幻の銀水晶…
238 ルナ：プリンセス… 月のプリンセス！
Closing Theme, “Princess Moon”
Nante is a despective suffix, it’s mean to show some annoyance or disagreement about the verb phrase. In this case, Usagi is annoyed by the fact that Mamoru is Tuxedo Mask, a person she admires.
Also please note that we do not tend to translate address suffixes like -sama with an actual word because there is no consistent equivalency in English.
Takishiido Kamen is another superhero in the show. He shows up to throw a rose, say something marginally helpful, and then leave. He is a strange character.
The ga here is the nominative particle.
Please note that sentences often end in no, but it is syntactically speaking still the dependent noun, but you can treat it as an ending particle for practical purposes.
The use of ni here is a bit unusual. “NOUN にできること” is a common expression, and here ni here is marking the subject, who is the performer, but there is no precedent for this to not be in the nominative.
Please note that both koto is substantivizing the verb phrases.
Remember that in Japanese the subject and the copula of the sentence, often drop out, which is why we will often be supplying those two things in brackets.
The reason we do not put this “I” in brackets is because the use of the desiderative mood implies a personal desire. It’s uncharacteristic to talk of another’s desires this way outside of a quote.
The na here is the pseudo-copula that is tying the verb phrase to the noun. Remember that in Japanese verb phrases modify nouns by directly preceding them.
Keep in mind that when we say “call [you],” we mean to call by phone.
One can also make a case for this being word scrambling, where midnight is actually the topic of the sentences, moved to the end, which would make this sentence mean something like “At midnight, [I] cannot even call [you].”
Here we are understanding junjou to be the topic, and the topical particle has dropped out.
We will suggest that the conventional order of this phrase is “Seiza no mataki wo kazue koi no yukue wo uranau,” and our translation is made in that light. The important things to note are that seiza no mataki and koi no yukue are direct objects here.
Kazue is the 1st imperative-active conjugation of kazueru.
We will suggest that the noun phrase “onaji chikyuu ni umareta no” is the topic of this sentence and that the topical particle dropped out.
(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen sama wo taosu tame ni Zoisaito ga baketa nise-Seeraa Muun.)
(Usagi: [It] [was] a fake Sailor Moon that Zoisite turned into in order to defeat Tuxedo Mask.)
This would be a great time to remind you that our translations are not meant to be publication-worthy translations. We aren’t interested in creating English equivalents as much as we’re interested in telling you what the sentence is saying. If we wanted to write this in a way that sounded natural in English, we’d say “Zoisite turned into a fake Sailor Moon in order to defeat Tuxedo Mask.”
Pinchi is a loanword refers to a problem.
The secondary particle mo has caused the topical particle to drop out. The reason mo is being used in the first place is because Tuxedo Mask’s being tricked and forced into a fight can be considered a pinch.
Note that we are not translating shimau and its variants lexically this time. Shichatte is a contraction of shite shimatte, shite is the indicative–active–affirmative–Te-form of suru and shimatte is the indicative–active–affirmative–Te-form conjugation of shimau.
(Usagi: Seeraa Viinasu no toujou de toriaezu kiki wa dasshita kedo Seeraa Viinasu wa honto ni tsuki no purinsesu na no?)
(Usagi: Though with Sailor Venus’ appearance, as for the danger, [we] escaped [it] for now, as for Sailor Venus, is she truly the Moon Princess?)
The Moon Princess is someone the main characters are meant to protect, but they do not know who she is.
Note that this sentence ends with the dependent noun no, which has required the noun purincesu to take the na pseudo-copula for syntactic integrity.
Kara is a post-position, and it refers to the departure from a point, which is why it is sometimes translated as “from,” and sometimes as “after.” But what Usagi is talking about here is that she’s wondering what will happen based on what has happened now.
We will suggest here that the accusative particle wo has dropped out after hikari, and that the genitive particle no has dropped out after purinsesu. Or you can say that toujou is meant to become a verb with suru and that a nominative particle has dropped out. In any case, it semantically comes to the same thing.
Sailor V is a famous superhero in her own right, and the press calls her Sailor V (for reasons unknown), but she’s actually just one of the Sailor Soldiers.
Note again the sentence ending in no and a na having to be placed after the noun because of it.
(Minako: Iie, atashi wa anata-tachi to onaji purinsesu wo mamoru senshi no hitori.)
(Minako: No, as for me, [I] [am] a person that is a soldier that the same as you protects the princess.)
If you’re relatively new to Japanese, sentences ending in no and multiple subordinate clauses stacked on each other like this are not uncommon.
Uso-mitai might more idiomatically be translated as “like a dream.”
This is a case where we make an exception to the translation rule. Yoroshiku is the adverbial conjugation of yoroshii, which means good. If we just wrote “well” in our translation, one might have no idea what we meant.
In Japanese, introductions tend to end with yoroshiku o-negai shimasu, which means “[I] ask you well,” which is means “I ask that you treat me well.” And as a conclusion to an introduction, it is like “A pleasure (to meet you)” in English.
(Everybody: A pleasure.)
(Arutemisu: Tokoro de sekkaku atsumatta no ni nanda kedo boku-tachi wa aru basho no chousa-juu na n da.)
(Artemis: By the way, even though [you] have assembled at long last, though [that] is the case, as for us, [we] are in the middle of an investigation of a certain place.)
Note that the use of the compound particle no ni and the conjunction kedo is redundant, but it is what has been said.
Nanda is just na n da; do not mind much whether or not we separate them or write them together. Here the noun is actually “sekkaku atsumatta no.”
(Arutemisu: Kuwashii koto wa ashita yuugata Hikawa jinja he shuugou shite、 sono toki ni jaa, Runa, mata.)
(Artemis: As for the detailed thing, tomorrow evening assemble at Hikawa shrine; until that time, Luna.)
Hikawa shrine is the shrine Rei works at as a miko.
The kuwashii koto is the report on their findings.
Nani yue is not a common expression, but it is just the interrogative pronoun nani and the noun yue, meaning “reason.” It’s an adverbial expression meaning “for what reason?” or “why?”
(Zoisaito: Ato ippo de niji suishou wo ubaitori Takishiido Kamen ni todome wo…)
(Zoisite: With the next step, we would snatch away the rainbow crystals, and [inflict] the finishing blow on Tuxedo Mask.)
The ellipsis here leave out the verb. We are not able to omit it without making an ungrammatical sentence, so we have supplied it in brackets as “inflict.”
The use to the verbal stem of ubaitoru is conjunctive.
Ato ippo de translates quite literally to with the next step, but it tends to be translated as “another;” what’s important it to express that they were close to fulfilling their goals.
Ooi naru is synonymous with ooi. It is just a fancy term.
The ja here is the contraction of de wa, marking the topic. The copula here has been omitted.
The –nu here is an negative conjugation. It was part of an older form of Japanese, and is used only very rarely in Japanese, and only to convey something negative.
The use of the Te-form plus wa naranai (or in this case naranu) is just an prohibitive expression. So it means “to not X.”
Tsurete mairu means to “to take and come,” which effectively means “to bring.”
Dou iu is an expression meaning literally “how [one] says?” and it is semantically equivalent to dou or donna or in some cases doudemo. One can see dou iu koto as a more formal expression for just doushite or dou or naze.
This is probably a fancy way of telling Zoisite that she does not owe him an explanation.
We are not exactly sure why Queen Beryl uses the dative instead of the genitive here.
(Kunzaite: [We] have understood.)
Kokoroeru is roughly synonymous with wakaru, and it is being used as that verb is used to express acknowledgement.
Remember that various noetic verbs (verbs whose actions take place in the mind) tend to use the perfect conjugation to express that the action is in effect and not that it will happen. Not that one “will” understand, but that one “does” understand.
Note that the common translation of kusoh is shit, but kusoh does not actually mean feces. Rather, it’s a vulgar interjection made when one is frustrated.
The expression that’s a verb phrase plus “koko ga dekiru” is equivalent to the potential mood. Thus mamorenakatta and mamoru koto ga dekinakatta are semantically equivalent.
(Mamoru: Seeraa Muun…)
(Mamoru: Sailor Moon…)
Note the use of the honorific o- before heya. The honorific prefixes (o- or go-) can go before almost any noun, and regularly are, so do not take them too seriously.
This is the conjunction ga, used like kedo to elicit a response from the person being spoken here, meaning more fully “Tell me, how [are you] here?”
(Zoisaito: Ara, shoutai sae wakatte shimaeba shirabe wa sugu ni tsukimasu wa, Mamoru-chan.)
(Zoisite: Oh, when I finished understanding your true form, as for investigating, [I] quickly commenced [that], Mamoru.)
Shoutai means “true form,” but in the context of superheroes it refers to one’s secret identity. Henceforth we’ll say “secret identity.”
Sae is a suffix that marks the most important thing is a sentence. Here it’s the importance of know his secret identity in order to find him.
We’ve translated wakatte shimaeba as “when… finished understanding.” This is the -eba conjugation of wakatte shimau, which means “to finish understanding,” or “to finish learning.” The eba conjugation is not always meant to be taken in purely conditional terms. More properly it helps conjoin two actions, where the second action, the result, is being emphasized. So in English that it better conveyed with a temporal clause: “when…”
The use of the address suffix –chan for Mamoru is meant to be teasing. A lot of Zoisite’s character is based on him being homosexual.
(Zoisaito: Nee, mou shoutai mo barechatteru n da shi kokora de kecchaku wo tsukemashou yo.)
(Zoisite: Well, because it is the case that even [your] secret identity is already exposed, let us settle things somewhere around here.)
The expression kecchaku wo tsukeru means literally “to affix a conclusion,” but it means “to settle things.” We point this out for the sake of the next sentence.
The to here is the quotative particle. In our translation we supplied the verb that in English would make that clear.
With the conjunctive Te-form, it will adopt the mood of the governing verb, the one at the end. In this case, shimashou is in the volitional mood, so we consider kakete to be volitional, too.
Seiseidoudou is one of a few adverbs that takes to as an adverbial marker. (It is probably the quotative marker, a remnant of a longer expression, or something of that sort.)
Seiseidoudou more literally means “neat and fair” or something like that. But it is equivalent to “fair and square.”
Ja nai here is an equivalent to the ending particle ne. The compound particle ne ka is an anime-ish thing to say. It is just both particles. Ne expresses one’s desire for the other person’s validation. Ka makes this a question, or casts doubt on it. What Mamoru wants to express here is that he wants to know if this is what Zoisite wants him to do.
The use of ko here is another teasing of Mamoru.
(Zoisaito: Basho wa bei eria no choukousou biru Sutaaraito Tawaa de dou kashira.)
(Zoisite: As for the place, at Starlight Tower, the skyscraper of the bay area, what [do you think], I wonder?)
Keep in mind that dou is also used to ask for another’s confirmation when you make a suggestion.
Darou and its variants are basically equivalent to ne. In day-to-day conversations what separates darou from ne is that darou marks things that will probably happen- future events. In anime, sometimes it will not.
O-yasuminasai is an expression that is equivalent to “good night.” It’s is actually the 2nd-imperative conjugation of yasumu with the honorific prefix attached.
Son ja is a contraction of sore ja.
Harada is Usagi’s teacher.
Me is a despective suffix. It’s highly inappropriate to use it towards one’s teacher.
(Usagi: Minna ga matte’ru tte iu no ni kou iu hi ni kagitte inokori saseru n da kara.)
(Usagi: Because even though I say that everyone is waiting on such a day as this [she] makes [me] do detention.)
The ni kagitte expression means more literally “restricting to.” It marks a time that gives the rest of the action some new relevance. In this case, it marks the day when it would be very inconvenient to receive detention.
Kou iu is just like dou iu, being equivalent to konna or kou.
Iteh is itai, and itai, besides being an adjectival verb, also works as an interjection to exclaim one’s pain.
Do is a shortening of dou, which is very common. Dou shita is a bit of an expression used when you want an explanation of something. In this case, it is because Mamoru is in a lot of pain after Usagi merely slapped him.
O-dango atama is Mamoru’s main nickname for Usagi, based on the two ball of hair on her head that look like dango, which are mochi dumplings.
Note that one would expect genki to take the pseudo-copula na. Here that has been omitted. Do not think much of it.
Genki de iru is an expression, meaning “to be with spirit/energy.” Because it’s an expression there is a second instrumental particle here instead of the comitative particle.
Ya is a truncation of iya, which is a noun used as an interjection to express displeasure or disagreement.
Note that the topical particle after choushi has been omitted.
Are is a pronoun used as an interjection to express surprise or doubt about something. Here Usagi is questioning the red on her hand.
X no aida ni means “during the interval of X,” which means that something happened within the timeframe of X, so it is a bit more vague than no toki. If you wanted to translate this more naturally, you’d just say “When?”
(Usagi: Ah, masaka…)
(Usagi: Ah, can it be…?)
(Mamoru: O dango!)
Here Mamoru is referring to Usagi.
We tend to not try to translate honorific prefixes lexically because they are much more common in Japanese than any kind of honorific pronoun is in English.
Nani sun is a very common expression in Japanese.
Koso is an emphasizing suffix, akin to sae. Here we have chosen to express that emphasis with italics.
Tte is a casual quotative particle. The verb and the interrogative particle have been omitted. But what is being conveyed is that Usagi is questioning why Mamoru is questioning her.
The use of no koto after pronouns and names merely points out that the person is the object of an action. Strictly speaking, it is not mandatory, but it is very common.
The use of the Te form plus kuru means “to begin to X.”
The use of the n after ageta allows Usagi to use ja nai (here equivalent to ne). The last no is the use of that substantivizing dependent noun as marking an explanation. This is why she followed him.
(Usagi: Anta no sono kega, sonna karada de furafura aruitetara naonai wa yo!)
(Usagi: That injury of yours, if you walk unsteadily with such a condition, [it] will not heal!)
Karada mostly refers to one’s body, but it can also refer to one’s health and general condition.
Note that the topical particle after kega has been omitted.
Kankei nai is a common expression meaning something like “it’s none of your business.”
This is one of those cases where daro and its counterparts are used in a way more akin to ne and have little to do with making predictions about the future.
Sa is a more exclamatory suffix than sae and koso. The latter two are more about noting the importance of the word it is precedes.
Kaere is a very common exclamation, really meaning to go somewhere safe.
The phrase “X wa (or tte) nai” is a bit of an expression, meaning literally that “there will not be X,” which, given its context, means that X is something that is not necessary or something that really won’t/can’t exist. In this case, it’s talking about necessity. It’s Usagi telling Mamoru that he does not need to talk to her that way.
Also note the n ja nai no again. This is just a case of anime characters using an abundance of ending particles. It just happens.
Kora is just a counterpart to the interjection hora.
Usso is a common exclamation as well. Here we provide an explanation of where it comes from. It’s similar to English, “You have to be kidding me.”
Nande is the interrogative pronoun nan and the instrumental particle, which is equivalent to “why?” So you can use that in your translation as well.
The use of ikura here is to ask how much longer she’ll take.
The use of de mo to mean “even for” is a bit unusual, but worth noting. The function of the instrumental particle here seem to be the basic function of marking an instrument, in this case an instrument of a standard, as in “even with Usagi (as the standard for tardiness)” (This is mostly speculation. Don’t quote us on this one.)
The use of the periphrastic progressive–negative often conveys that something has not yet happened, or that it is is a continuous state of not happening, “is not going home.” But a more appropriate translation would be “is has not yet gone home.”
The use of the casual quotative particle here is used to indicate that this is information Ami heard from another, probably from her family when she called.
Nante is a substantivizing suffix, and it adds the meaning of “something like,” in a bit of a despective tone, meaning it’s something that the speaker would rather not be true.
Tsuujinai is the indicative–active–negative–imperfect conjugation of tsuujiru, meaning “to communicate,” or, more properly, “to go through.” It describes the connection of two things, mostly ideas in communication, things being understood and the like. Here it means that the communication device doesn’t work, or that they cannot reach her.
What has been left out of this sentence is either naranai or ikenai, which make of the expression nakute wa naranai/ikenai, meaning “As for not X-ing, it will not become [so]/cannot go,” which means that one must X.
(Minako: Sutaaraito Tawaa yo!)
(MInako: Starlight Tower!)
(Rei: Who [are you?])
Wasurechatta is the contraction of wasurete shimatta.
Fudan wa is a common expression, it can be translated as “usually.”
Chuu ni is an abbreviation of chuugakkou ninensei, meaning “middle school, second year student.”
Note that onaji takes the comitative particle to express that one is the same as.
(Arutemisu: Boku-tachi no chosa ni yoru to teki ni Sutaaraito Tawaa de nanika wo takurande iru you na n da.)
(Artemis: According to our research, [it] is like the enemy, [they] are scheming something in Starlight Tower.)
You is a dependent noun meaning “like” or “similar to.” This is used here apparently to express a bit of uncertainty about their conclusion.
Note the use of the nominative to mark the direct object. Tsukaenai is the potential–active–negative–imperfect conjugation of tsukau– but tsukaeru is often used to mean something like “to be serviceable,” which, with this definition, would take the nominative.
Note that the periphrastic progressive will often describe that the effects of an action that is still, well, in effect, and not necessarily that the action is still going on. Thus what is being communicated in this sentence is not that the Usagi is performing the action of entering Starlight Tower, but that she is in Starlight Tower and facing everything that the action implies, i.e. that she’s in trouble.
What we believe Luna is saying here is that she thinks Minako is wrong, and that she is with someone, because Usagi is not pro-active in that way (because she knows she depends on other people.)
Note that datte here is a suffix, similar to mo, meaning “even.” Here Luna is using it because it’s really the other Sailor Soldiers who pick up Usagi’s slack.
Note the uses of oku here. Oku means “to lay,” or “to place.” But with the Te-form it becomes an expression meaning “to do something for future benefit.” This is part of a very common expression, meaning to do something for a future benefit. Here the future benefit is to ensure that during their fight neither of them runs away.
Note the omission of the object modified by anata no. This is very common with genitives of possession.
Note the use of the Te-form and yaru, which basically means the same thing as the verb, but it sounds rougher and it is very anime-ish.
This is a case where darou marks a prediction about the future.
Please keep in mind that in anime no is practically another ending particle. One can identify some special uses for in real life conversations, but here, where it appears so often, one can hardly find a meaning for it other than filler.
(Mamoru: Hah, shimatta!)
(Mamoru: Ah, [it] happened completely!)
Shimatta is the indicative–active–affirmative–perfect conjugation of shimau. Its equivalence to “damn it” comes from something having happened in its entirely, and that being to the speaker’s detriment.
Itadaku is a humble verb meaning “to receive.” One says itadakimashita when one has received something from another. Here Kunzite uses it to tease Mamoru, for obviously they weren’t a gift.
Note that we are translating zo, an emphatic ending particle, with an exclamation mark here. Yo is much more common and have many more uses than exclamation marks which is why we do not translate them as exclamation marks. Zo is more in line with an exclamation mark.
(Zoisaito: Otto, heta ni ugoku to soko no o-jou-chan ga kurokoge ni naru wa yo.)
(Zoisite: Hold up, if you move imprudently, the young lady there will turn into a burnt black thing.)
Note that the first dative (dative of manner) can be translated adverbially. “In a manner imprudent” is equivalent to “imprudently.”
The to here is the conditional conjunction.
Hai is often translated as “yes,” but it second meaning is an acceptance/confirmation of what someone else has said. It’s important to keep this in mind.
The rest of this sentence, we presume, would be a verb meaning “to fight.”
Please check the vocabulary entry where we explain dou shite.
The verb, again, has been omitted for the kao ni noun phrase, but we assume it would mean “to cut.”
Oboete rasshai is an honorific conjugation equivalent to oboete inasai. Rasshai is a verbal suffix that has the permanent features of being active–affirmative, and the only imperative it accepts is a variation of the 2nd imperative.
(Zoisaito: Chiba Mamoru, niji suishou wo torimodoshitakereba saijoukai no tenbou-shitsu made oide.)
(Zoisite: Mamoru Chiba, if you want to retrieve the rainbow crystals, come up to the viewing room, which is the top floor.)
Oide is a verbal expression that is generally used for one’s inferiors. Zoisite speaks strangely.
Again, the verb has been omitted, and we have supplied it. This is one of those cases where we cannot afford make the sentence as syntactically similar as the Japanese without creating an ungrammatical sentence. Thus the effect of the ellipsis is lost.
The Te-form plus choudai is an expression. It means that “X-ing will be abundant.” It is an invitation to do something.
Zonbun ni is also an expression, meaning “to one’s heart’s content,” or “as much as one likes.”
This, of course, is a sarcastic remark, because nobody wants to be in a dangerous situation.
(Mamoru: [This] is dangerous!)
Abunai is an adjectival verb meaning “dangerous.” Like urusai and itai, it is used as an interjection. Its English equivalent is “Watch out!”
(Mamoru: Run away!)
(Usagi: Kata no kega? Kinou no Takishiido Kamen-sama mo kata wo… masaka ne.)
(Usagi: [His] shoulder injury? Yesterday’s [night], Tuxedo Mask’s, too, [hurt] [his] shoulder… could it be, no?)
The yoru after kinou no has dropped out. This is a bit akin to saying “the other night.”
The verb, again, has been omitted, and we have supplied it.
Stylistically ya da is written in katakana, but do not let that fool you. It is iya da.
(Mamoru: Erabeetaa made ganbare!)
(Mamoru: Keep going up to the elevator!)
(Usagi: [We] have been saved…)
Demo nai is a common expression, meaning that, despite one’s expectations, that may not become the case. In this case, Mamoru is denying Usagi’s expectation that they have been saved, because the elevator, too may be dangerous. That is why it is popularly, and properly, translated as “perhaps not,” “I think not.”
Mou is sometimes used as an interjection. This is one of those cases. If you wish to not take it as an interjection, we recommend saying “…we can’t go anywhere anymore.”
A more suitable translation of mondai no would be in question, as in the building that we’re wondering about, that we have questions about.
Dou tte koto nai is a colloquial expression. It comes from dou iu koko nai, meaning something like “there is nothing to mention.”
We covered dou iu previously. Remember that it is semantically equivalent to to donna or dou.
(Makoto: Waga jugo mokusei arashi wo okose kumo wo yobe ikazuchi wo furase yo!)
(Makoto: My planet [of] protection, Jupiter, cause a storm! Summon clouds! Bring down thunder!)
As with English, Japanese on a colloquial level considers thunder to be like lightning, an electric discharge.
We have supplied periods after every imperative.
(Makoto: Shuupuriimu Sandaa!)
(Makoto: Supreme Thunder!)
Domo is a pluralizing suffix. It’s what you find in kodomo. Sometimes that isn’t made clear. It tends to be used by superior to refer to inferiors. Me is the same derisive suffix.
(Zoisaito: Niji suishou wa atsumeta shi Chiba Mamoru mo mohaya te no uchi.)
(Zoisite: Because, as for the rainbow crystals, we have collected them, Mamoru Chiba, too, [is in] the palm of our hands.)
Note that the use of mo here is to refer to the fact that they have both Mamoru and the rainbow crystals.
(Kunzaito: Hoho no kizu no urami zonbun ni harasu ga yoi.)
(Kunzite: As for [your] grudge for the wound on [your] cheek, refreshing oneself to one’s heart’s content would be good.)
What Kunzite means here is that Zoisite should attack Mamoru, that he’d be refreshed if he got back at Mamoru.
The X ga yoi expression is easy enough to understand syntactically if you supply a substantivizer at the end of the verb phrase X. It’s really a suggestion that one do something.
Note that the verb, even when it wasn’t a copula, was omitted.
The de mo in sore de mo ii are the instrumental and secondary particle. A more literal translation would be “With that, too, [the situation] is fine/good.”
The tame here is from tame ni– and the ni got omitted.
(Mamoru: Kioki wo torimodosu tame ni niji suishou wo atsume maboroshi no gin suishou wo te ni irenakute wa naranai kara sa.)
(Mamoru: Because, in order to retrieve [my] memories, [I] must gather the rainbow crystals and obtain the phantom silver crystal.)
Irenakute is the indicative–active–negative–Te-form conjugation of ireru. This is used for the sake of the Xte wa naranai expression, meaning “As for not X-ing, [it] will not become,” meaning “one must do X.”
The use of made in a form similar to the secondary particle mo is not uncommon. What made implies is that it’s an extreme. So not only does Mamoru want the rainbow crystals, he’s gone so far as to seek the silver crystal.
(Mamoru: Ore wa roku-sai no toki kuruma no jiko de ryoshin to shin ni wakareta.)
(Mamoru: As for me, when I as 6 years old, [I] was separated by death from my parents due to a car accident.)
Note that the verb wakareru takes the comitative particle.
Note that the no in no toki is the attributive form of the copula da. Both da and datta will turn into no, which is curious.
What the doctor is talking about here is that they treated the parents too late.
(Isha: Hitori musuko no Mamoru-kun wa kisekiteki ni inochi wo toritometa no desu ga…)
(Doctor: As for Mamoru, who is the only son, though miraculously his life was spared…)
Here the doctor uses the conjunction ga because, although Mamoru survived, he has now lost his memories.
(Mamoru: I don’t know…)
The use of na here is because Mamoru used no, which, as a noun, requires the pseudo-copula na when another noun modifies it.
A cleverer translation for zutto would be “never,” as in “[I] never can remember anything.”
Note that you ni naru is a bit different than you ni, where the latter ni is the dative of manner and the former is the object dative. The former describes something coming about that wasn’t there before. The later is to say that something happens in the form of something else, which is a metaphorical statement.
Onegai is a trunctation of onegai shimasu, which is an expression meaning “to request.”
Hanshi chimatta is a contraction of hanashite shimatta.
We’ve translated hanashi chimatta as “did… end up talking about,” which we do to partially convey the meaning of shimau, which is to do something and for that thing to be strange or inconvenient.
(Usagi: Atashi anta no koto sekai de ichiban ya na yatsu tte omotteta kedo niban me kurai ni… shitoite ageru wa yo.)
(Usagi: As for me, though [I] thought that you were the number one horrible guy in the world, [I] will move [you] to around the second position.)
Normally, there would be a copula after yatsu, but it has been omitted. Ya is still iya– and thus the na is the pseudo-copula.
Shitoite is shite oite, shite being the Te-form of suru, here meaning “to move,” which is common when it works with the dative, to refer to some transfer of some point A to point B. The oite is the Te-form of oku, which is the verb that means that something is being done for some future benefit. Here the future benefit will be when she banters with him next time and needs to call him horrible.
Hazu is a very common dependent noun. It means something like “expectation” “X hazu” means “X should be.” So one could translate this to “Such a thing should not be.”
Ki-sama is a very old pronoun, once used to a superior, now used in lots of anime and video games. That honorific address suffix now means nothing. Note the use of the pluralizing suffix -ra.
The dative in shi ni is the dative of purpose. It is not seen too often when not used with the verbs iku and kuru.
(Makoto: Seeraa Viinasu…)
(Makoto: Sailor Venus…)
(Usagi: A power outage?)
Barechau is a contraction of barete shimau.
Shinjau is a contraction of shinde shimau.
To mo is a compound particle, from the comitative particle and secondary particle. It works like a suffix, really, and it means something like “certainly,” and brings extra focus to the object, in this case, meaning that is is “both of us” who will die, meaning that if they do die, there will be no Sailor Moon anyway.
Not even Mamoru knew Usagi was Sailor Moon, even though Sailor Moon’s outfit is practically identical to Usagi’s regular school uniform plus some boots and a tiara.
(Mamoru: Seeraa Muun…)
(Mamoru: Sailor Moon…)
(Zoisaito: Kuin Beriru-sama ni wa Chiba Mamoru wa jiko de shinda tte houkoku shinakuccha ne.)
(Zoisaito: To Queen Beryl, as for Mamoru Chiba, [I] will have to report that [he] died in an accident, won’t it?)
Note the double use of the topical particle. Using the topical particle twice happens very rarely in Japanese, but it does happen.
(Usagi: Hikyou na teguchi de hitobito wo madowashi atashi-tachi futari wo ijimeta tsumi wa kicchiri tsugunatte morau wa yo!)
(Usagi: [You] you deceive people with a cowardly trick, and as for the crime that is persecuting us you, [you] will punctually pay [for that].)
The use of kono before one’s name is an expression. It basically means “me, X.” So you can translate as such.
ゾイサイト： セーラームーン、タキシード仮面と 一緒に片づけてあげるわ。
(Zoisaito: Seeraa Muun, Takishiido Kamen-sama to issho ni katadzukete ageru wa.)
(Zoisite: Sailor Moon, [I] will take care of [you] and Tuxedo Mask together.)
Please make sure you understand the way ageru, kureru, and morau function.
Note that this is really an indirect question.
(Usagi: Could it be…)
Chotto is often translated as “a little,” which is fine, but another translation is “a bit more,” and that is equally applicable.
Bakari is a substantivizing suffix. A more literary translation of this sentence, which might be necessary right now, is “By doing nothing but crying you won’t resolve anything.”
Fukure is the indicative–active verbal stem of fukureru. It is being used conditionally, but that conditional interpretation is a spin-off of the conjunctive use. X happens and then Y will happen can contextually be equivalent to Y will happen if X happens.
Nacchau is a contraction of natte iru.
Note that kyou no kimi sounds very strange in English, but one quickly gets the idea. We recommend the more literary translation “you today.”
Makaseru is the indicative–active–affirmative–imperfect conjugation. Sometimes this conjugation is used as an imperative. This is one of those cases. So feel free to translate this as “Entrust the rest to me.”
Datte and no ni have very similar meanings, and in your translation you can just say “but.” Japanese does sometimes use multiple conjunctions that mean the same thing for emphasis, here the emphasis being that this injury is a problem.
This is a bit of a play on words, in you. His name is Mamoru, so it sounds like he’s saying that he is Mamoru.
(Zoisaito: Jareru no wa sono kurai ni shite kondo koso kecchaku wo tsukeyou ja nai no, Takishiido Kamen.)
(Zoisite: As for being amused, although [this is] almost that thing, at this moment, let us settle the dispute, okay, Tuxedo Mask?)
This is perhaps the most complicated sentence in the episode. Let us consider ni shite to be functionally a conjunction (and you see that Te-form shite functioning conjunctively.) As such, we have a first verb phrase: “Jareru no wa sono kurai,” which means “As for being amused [this] is almost that.” Sono is referring to jareru no. The second verb phrase is “kondo koso kecchaku wo tsukeyou,” which is the noun kondo and the active-volitional conjugation of tsukeru, which is in the expression kecchaku wo tsukeru, which we saw at the beginning of the episode.
(Mamoru: Ii darou. Tadashi Seeraa Muun ni wa tedashi wo shinai to yakusoku shite moraou.)
(Mamoru: Fine. Provided that if, as for Sailor Moon, [she] does not meddle, you keep [your] promise.)
The use of ni wa in this case is hard to describe, because we do not fully understand it ourselves. Ni wa does often come up in negative sentences where you’d expect just the topical particle. It seems to be something idiomatic.
Remember that seiseidoudou is one of these adverbs that takes a to adverbial marker.
(Zoisite: [I] have received!)
This is another expression. This is the Japanese equivalent to “I’ve got you.” As in, “I have received the opportune moment.)
This is Usagi answering Mamoru’s question.
Shite is a truncation of the indicative–active–periphrastic progressive–affirmative–imperfect conjugation of shite iru. What probably happened is that Mamoru meant to say shiten n da, and one of those /n/’s dropped out.
The “it” here is him being stabbed again.
“X de yokatta” tends to be translated as “I’m glad that X,” which is fine, and there is an equivalency there, but its literal translation is more “By X, [(something)] is fine.”
(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen, Takishiido Kamen!)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask, Tuxedo Mask!)
(Minako: [We] are late…)
Osokatta is the perfect conjugation of osoi. The reason it is conjugated in the past even though it has a present effect is because with certain verbs the Japanese ear defaults to a future tense interpretation- and osoi is one of them. The noetic verbs are most of the others.
(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen…)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask…)
Maboroshi no is often translated as “legendary,” which is fine, but keep in mind that it is legendary in the sense that it may be talked about but nobody has actually seen in.
(Minako: Seeraa Muun…)
(Minako: Sailor Moon…)
(Runa: Purinsesu… Tsuki no purinsesu!)
(Runa: Princess… The Moon Princess!)
Hiru normally does not take a dative, but it can. Ni wa here is the dative of time and the topical particle. They do not have a nuanced meaning together.
Note the use of the substantivizing dependent noun no and the required na because of it.
The more natural translation of this would be “making noise with white shoes”
This is a case of progressive aspect being used to express an action that is still in effect. So it does not mean that she right now is having the dream, but that it has stuck with her and she probably has that dream recurrently.
Here we are taking muun to be an indirect object with its dative particle having dropped out. That is what makes most sense to us, if we take this Te-form to be imperative, which we do.)
You may also say “spin, spin.”
Maware is the 1st imperative-active conjugation of mawaru.
Ge is a suffix meaning “giving the feeling off.” Suzushi is the verbal stem of suzushii.
We are taking the Te-form hirugaeshite as being imperative.
Particles and Company
In this section, we’ll be talking about Japanese case declension particles and post-positions
Grammatical Case — When we speak of case, we are talking about a general form a noun will take that will establish its relationship to the other words in a sentence. In English, there is a bit of case declension in the pronouns, such as he, him, and his.
The number of cases in Japanese is highly disputed. We currently like a model with seven cases topical, nominative, genitive, dative, locative, accusative, instrumental, comitative and vocative. That sounds like a lot, but thankfully Japanese has only one declension pattern. In many other languages, there are 4 or 5 patterns. So this is easy.
- Subject Nominative — marks the subject of a sentence. This is really the only use of the nominative one sees on a regular basis.
- Object Nomanative — in rare cases, a direct object will be marked with が for emphatic purposes
Genitive の (The genitive has a nifty translation trick: Translate “X no Y” as “Y of X,” and that will by and large give you a good idea of its purpose in the sentence.)
- Possessive Genitive — marks an owner of something.
- Categorical Genitive — marks the category or class to which another belongs
- Temporal Genitive — works with some time related nouns to talk about a thing “as it in at X time”
- Locational Genitive — works with some nouns to mark where a thing is.
- SSubject Genitive — in subordinate clauses, not just quotes, every now and again the subject will be marked with the genitive
- Directional Dative — marks the place or direction to which an action is directed
- Locational Dative — used with the copulae いる and ある, marks the place in which a thing exists
- Manner Dative (a.k.a. the Adverbial Dative) — marks the manner in which something occurs. If one can make the noun adverbial, that will normally be a fine translation
- Transitional Dative — marks a new state or position due to an action. This is the dative that works with なる and する
- Objective Dative — marks an object in an action. Some verbs simply take the dative rather than the accusative.
- Oblique Dative — marks the agent/performer of an action (normally seen with the passive voice) and the indirect object of an action
- Temporal Dative — marks the time in which something occurs
- Purpose Dative — marks the reason for the action occurring
- Objective Accusative — marks the direct object of an action. This is by and large the only popular use of the accusative
- Movement Through Accusative — marks movement through
- Causative Instrumental — marks the reason for something occurring
- Means Instrumental — marks the means, or the tools with which an action occurs
- Parallel Comitative — marks an object that has the same syntactic role as another verb. This is the one that gets translated as “and.”
- Accompaniment Comitative — marks an accompaniment to another noun. This is the one that gets translated as “with.” The noun 同じ will mark its object with this と, meaning “same with” or “same as.” Various verbs will use this a bit in an ablative sense, as marking a separation “from.”
Topical は — marks the topic of a sentence. It is rare that a sentence have more than one topical phrase, but it does occasionally happen. It has a causal counterpart: って
Vocative Ø — used to address someone. There is no case particle for this one.
Japanese has one particle that doesn’t mark a case, but rather a verb phrase, a subordinate clause governed by another verb. This is most often used for quotations, both direct and indirect, of what a person is thinking or saying.
The other function of this particle is to mark certain adverbs, mostly adverbs that are onomatopoetic, which are utterances or sounds made by objects and living things.
It has a casual counterpart: って. (Yes, it looks identical to the casual topical particle.)
Japanese has a few other secondary particles, but this one is by far the most popular. It has the meaning “too” or “even.” It goes after the (primary) case particle. However, when it pairs with は, が, or を, the primary particle drops out.
Post-Positions are particles that give us spatio-temporal information about a noun. They tell us when and where they are.
まで — refers to the endpoint, or an extreme. We tend to translate this as “to” or “until” or “up to.” It is often used like the secondary particle も, where what it is referring to specifically is that the noun, too, is extreme. I didn’t burn down the house, but the town, too.
で — refers to a place where something occurs. We tend to translate this as “at” or “in.” It’s easy to distinguish when to use で and when to use the dative because the action with で starts and ends in the same place.
Japanese allows for primary particles now and again to pair up, and sometimes the definition changes, i.e. there is some nuance to the meaning, but most of the time there isn’t. We want to address some of them here.
では — of elusive origins. It is the more formal counterpart of the topical は, and evidently it uses は. There is also a では where the topic is the location of an action, and thus the post-position で is in use, evidently. This often gets contracted to じゃ.
のに — is actually the dependent noun の and the manner dative. “X no ni Y” expresses that Y is occurring in a manner where X is also in effect. The nuanced meaning here is that X is something unexpected or seemingly contradictory. This is why it is translated as “although.”
には — is the oblique dative and the topical particle. This is often used in sentences where the verb is negative in order to mark the crux of the negativity. Otherwise, it is normally just an object being both the topic and the dative in one of its uses.
でも — this is not the conjunction, but the one that gets translated as “even for,” which is the means instrumental and the secondary particle. Its meaning is now idiomatic, i.e. how we got to this meaning is lost to us mostly, but our theory is that this instrumental is marking a person who serves as a standard. The other theory is that it comes from something like ではも, where the は drops out and you’re left with でも.
In Japanese, verbs usually conjugate through a series of suffixes for mood, voice, pole, and tense. Please refer to our Verbs article from the Starter Kit for more detailed information.
Desiderative — the desiderative mood indicates that the speaker wants something to happen. Its suffix is -itai (for the so-called u-verb) or -tai (for the so-called ru-verbs). The i, actually, is the place of the temporal and polar suffixes. So with the desiderative you get the order of suffixes being voice-mood-pole-tense
Passive — in the passive voice, the subject is what is affected by the action, and the performer is normally marked by the dative case. Its suffix is -are (for the so-called u-verbs) or –rare for the so called ru-verbs)
Note that there are many verbs that, although active, are passive in meaning, meaning that the subject will have something happen to it. So please always check its dictionary entry.
Pole and Tense
The pole and tense are difficult to think of as two separate things, so we will describe them as 4 suffixes.
Affirmative Imperfect Suffix -u (for the so-called u-verbs) or -ru (for the so-called ru-verbs)
Affirmative Perfect Suffix -ζ+a (we will explain ζ in a moment)
Negative Imperfect Suffix -anai (for the so-called u-verbs) or -nai (for the so-called ru-verbs)
Negative Perfect Suffix -anakatta (for the so-called u-verbs) or -nakatta (for the so-called ru-verbs). Note that this katta is actually -ζ+a. Remember that!
The Te-form is an interesting suffix that causes lot of strange morphological phenomena to happen. The thing that causes the weird stuff to happen we call ζ, and in the Te-form we have -ζ + e. ζ also functions with the affirmative imperfect.
The functions of the Te-form are many, but it is either acting conjunctively, as a gerund, an imperative, or in expressions using a verb immediately following it, which is ultimately a conjunctive function.
The Te-form takes the position of the tense.
The verbal stem is the absence of the suffixes for pole and tense. The so-called u-verbs will take a -i at the end and the ru-verbs will take nothing. This is used more than anything for conjunctive purposes, or when certain suffixes attach themselves the verb and then become nouns. It is very similar to the Te-form.
Secondary Moods are what we are calling (for now) all those moods that act differently from the four already mentioned.
Volitional — indicates an invitation to action, but not quite a command. In Japanese this mood can also be co-hortative, meaning that both the speaker and the listener will do it together. Suffix: -ou
These previous 4 seem to have a hard time admitting polarity or tense, and with these there is no real tense or tense.
-eba — expresses the condition of something occurring. This one focuses on the result. Suffix: -eba (for the so called u-verbs) -reba (for the so-called ru-verbs) This suffix, too, will disallow tense to be expressed.
For these two conditional moods, the verbs can also be indicative, potential, causative, or desiderative.
Aspect refers to the way in which an action occurs in time. Essentially, Japanese’s verbs are vague when it comes to aspect, and thus we call it simple aspect, i.e. an action just happens or it doesn’t happen.
However, there is a periphrastic progressive, which is a use of the Te-form with the copula iru to indicate progressive aspect. This is expressed as “to be X-ing,” i.e. that the action, or the effects of the action, are occurring (or valid) throughout an extent of time.
Truncation is simply when parts of a verb are dropped out. Most commonly this is the /i/ in the copula iru when one is using the periphrastic progressive. Other times, the -ru suffix will turn into -n, which may be a form of contraction but we will place it under truncation.
In Japanese, there is a thing called Teineigo (丁寧語), which refers to the use of the suffix -ます, which attaches to the verbal stem to function as the polar/temporal suffix. All this does semantically is add some politeness to what is being said.
Affirmative Imperfect -masu
Affirmative Perfect -mashita
Negative Imperfect -masen
Negative Perfect -masen deshita
Characters and Items
Usagi Tsukino — the main character of the show. As a Sailor Soldier, she takes on the role of Sailor Moon. Mamoru will often call her o-dango atama in reference to the buns on her head that look like the popular Japanese snack. In this episode, we learn that she is also the Moon Princess.
Ami Mizuno — the smart one. She is Sailor Mercury. She has water powers because in Japanese the planet Mercury is the Water Star, or 水星 (すいせい).
Rei Hino — the temperamental one. She is Sailor Mars. She has fire powers because in Japanese the planet Mars is the Fire Star, or 火星 (かせい).
Makoto Kino — the sporty one. She is Sailor Jupiter. She has thunder powers because in Japanese the planet Jupiter is the Wood Star, or 木星 (もくせい) and wood powers would be dumb.
Minako Aino — the cool one. She is Sailor Venus. She makes a much later appearance than the rest of the Sailor Soldiers and already has already been quite active because she comes from a mini-series by the same author called Codename: Sailor V. Her powers are based on gold chains because Venus in Japanese is the Gold Star, or 金星 (きんせい).
Zoisite — the goon. He is a very unlikable guy. He’s after the rainbow crystals because Queen Beryl told him to. He also dislikes Mamoru intensely. He’s also Kunzite’s lover/boyfriend. (In the original English dub by DIC they made him a woman to not cause controversy since they marketed this show towards kids- even though the more you think about this show the less it looks like it’s for kids.)
Kunzite — the top bad guy. Basically, for the entire first season, Sailor Moon and company go defeating the goons one by one, and Kunzite is the top one. (In the original English dub by DIC he was called Malachite.)
だ — (noun) copula, to be. Irregular polite form: です Formal form: である Formal humble form : でございます | Attributive form: の, many nouns take の when they want to modify another noun in order to create the needed verb phrase to do so.
どうせ — (conjunction) anyway, in any case
な — (pseudo-copula) used by nouns to become verb phrases that can modify noun, often called an adjectival suffix