Japanese Case Particles and Their Evil Twins!

Originally posted on Tumblr on March 22nd, 2017

Hey guys!

We wanted to take a moment to return to the idea of case particles and perhaps create a more refined model.

So, to review some terms real quick…

Nouns in Japanese don’t generally decline for number (meaning that they are not explicitly plural or singular or anything in between), but they decline by case.

Grammatical case refers to a function or identity that the noun carries. In English, the pronouns decline into nominative, genitive and objective.

Nominative: He, She, They

Objective: Him, Her, Them

Genitive: His, Her, Their

Japanese marks case through particles. Indo-European languages, like English, tend to do them by suffixes that are sometimes to figure out. So we’re very lucky, in a way.

Linguists aren’t in total agreement as to how many cases Japanese has, mainly because of a few odd places one sees Japanese’s case particles. But here are the cases that are indicated.

Topical (は/wa): indicates the topic of the sentence. It exists pretty independently.

Nominative (が/ga): indicates the subject of the sentence.

Accusative (を/wo): indicates the direct object.

Genitive (の/no): indicates possession of categorization.

Dative (に/ni): indicates the indirect object and location.

Instrumental (で/de): indicates a tool or cause.

Lative [or Locative] (へ/e): indicates direction toward.

Ablative (から/kara): indicates direction from.

Cases in any given language will tend to have multiple functions. In fact, there is a good likelihood that secondary functions of the same cases are repeated between languages. That is to say, if the accusative in Japanese can sometimes indicate motion through, it is likely that another language will have one such indication. And that is the case. There are also various “datives of manner,” which is what the “adverbial ni” actually is.

We here for now tend to talk about a topical, nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and locative. We don’t talk about the ablative, and the idea of calling the locative lative seems to be a remnant from the old idea that Japanese is related to Uralic languages (like Finnish and Estonian.) But it works really well, so we’ll keep it around.

(By the way, it’s generally accepted that Japanese is a language isolate. The idea of an “Altaic” family has been discredited, which I believe is a concept that was taught many years ago to Japanese (and Korean) students, so you’ll find language books claiming that Japanese (and Korean) is an Altaic language.)

The ablative, on the other hand, we’re afraid to indicate because of its “evil twin.” An “evil twin” is a counterpart to a case particle that works in a manner that is very different from the original case particle.

We often see “kara” as a post-position (or you can call it a conjunction, it really doesn’t really matter right  now.) The thing is that it will work with an entire verb phrase, which is not okay.

Japanese Evil Twins:

から (kara): marks a cause or reason. (”because”)

が (ga): conjunction, marks that both inflexional sentences are not comparable, meaning that you wouldn’t figure that one follows from the other. (”though…”)

で (de): post-postition, marks the location of an action when the location itself is not very relevant to the action. (”at,” or “in”)

の (no): attributive copula, serves as the copula in an attribute phrase. (”…that is…”

と (to): conditional conjunction, marks that the occurrence of an action is dependent on another. (If…)

We didn’t speak of “to,” because we are unsure if it’s a conjunction or if it is a comitative case marker. The comitative case marks that an action is done with or in the company of, which is possible in Japanese but it is rare. (E.g. 僕と行きますか? Will you go with me?)

The plot thickens:

If から is a case particle, an ablative, then まで (made) surely must be a case particle. And some have suggested to call it a “limitative” case, which would be unique to Japanese (as far as we know). But the nice thing about cases is that they’re something you can see in multiple languages, so we’re hesitant to concede that. That’s why we’d rather treat both as post-positions.

Japanese grammar tends to deal with this by calling them all “particles” and then giving them as many jobs as needed, but thinking of them all as a single grammatical unit. The bad thing about this, of course, is that then you don’t have “case” particles and it ignores the patterns seen in the case particles when compared to so many other languages.

But it is very strange that we have so many evil twins. It’s easy to dismiss one or two, but five (or six), that is a lot. The answers to all this probably lie in the history of the language, with things stemming from Old and Middle Japanese, some things most likely lost to us (things like idiomatic phrases truncated). So we’ll have to wait a while to figure it all out.

Anyway, we just thought you’d find this interesting. Food for thought.

Sailor Moon (Original Series) Episode 34 Runthrough

Welcome to the Sailor Moon Runthrough!

This runthrough is done in a relatively new format, where you have everything in one place. You will find everything in three main sections: Episode Script, Runthrough, and Glossary.

In the Glossary Section: you will find a Lore Guide, Essential Grammar Reference (case particles and things of the sort), and Vocabulary List. Don’t worry too much about this, because the links will all take you to where you need to be.

You’ll also notice some words in orange, these are interjections and loanwords that we will not be translating because they’re really not worth it.

Episode Script

Episode Sneak Peek — Montage — Usagi’s voice

1 ウサギ:嫌みなアイツがタキシード仮面さまだったなんて。

2 ウサギ:そしてついに ゾイサイトとタキシード仮面さまの 一騎打ちが…

3 ウサギ:ああ~ もう どうなってるの!

4 ウサギ:とにかく今の あたしにできることは悪を倒すことだけよ!

5 ウサギ:月にかわって おしおきよ!

Opening Theme, “Moonlight Densetsu”

6 ゴメンね 素直じゃなくて
7 夢の中なら云える
8 思考回路はショート寸前
9 今すぐ 会いたいよ
10 泣きたくなるよなmoonlight
11 電話も出来ないmidnight
12 だって純情 どうしよう
13 ハートは万華鏡

14 月の光に導かれ
15 何度も巡り会う
16 星座の瞬き数え占う恋の行方
17 同じ地球に生まれたの ミラクル・ロマンス

18 信じているの ミラクル・ロマンス

Episode Intro — Pervious Episode Montage — Usagi’s voice

19 ウサギ:タキシード仮面さまを倒すためにゾイサイトが化けた偽セーラームーン。

20 ウサギ:そのわなに まんまと はまって私たちも大ピンチ。

21 ウサギ:タキシード仮面さまもケガをしちゃって もう 大変!

22 ウサギ:セーラーヴィーナスの登場でとりあえず危機は脱したけどセーラーヴィーナスはホントに月のプリンセスなの?

23 ウサギ:これからあたしたちどうなっちゃうの?

Title Card

24 光輝く銀水晶!月のプリンセス登場

Scene 1 — Warehouse-Night — Usagi, Ami, Rei, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Artemis 

25 マコト:セーラーV、いえ、 セーラーヴィーナス。

26 ウサギ:も-もしかしてあなたがプリンセスなの?

27 ミナコ:いいえ、あたしは あなたたちと同じプリンセスを守る戦士の一人。

28 ウサギ:ウソみたい… 憧れのセーラーVちゃんが 目の前にいる。

29 ミナコ:よろしくね、みんな。

30 みんな:よろしく。

31 アルテミス:ところでせっかく集まったのに なんだけど僕たちはある場所の調査中なんだ。

32 アルテミス:詳しいことはあした夕方火川神社へ集合してその時にじゃあ、ルナ、また。

33 ルナ:ええ、あしたね。

34 ミナコ:じゃあ、みんな、またね。

35 アミ:行っちゃった…案外せっかちなのね。

36 ウサギ:でも、カッコいい…

Scene 2 — Dark Lair – Night — Queen Beryl, Zoisite, Kunzite 

37 クンザイト:クイン・ベリルさま、なにゆえ我らを呼び戻したのですか?

38 ゾイサイト:あと一歩で 虹水晶を奪い取りタキシード仮面にとどめを…

39 クイン・ベリル:大いなる支配者の命令じゃ。

40 クンザイト:大いなる支配者?

41 クイン・ベリル:タキシード仮面は殺してはならぬ。

42 クイン・ベリル:生きたまま ここへ連れてまいれ。

43 ゾイサイト:どういうことです?

44 クイン・ベリル:ええい、命令に説明などない。

45 クンザイト:心得ました。

Scene 3 — Mamoru’s Apartment – Night — Mamoru, Zoisite (on TV)

46 マモル:くそっ!

47 マモル:守ることができなかった…

48 ムモル:セーラームーン…

49 ゾイサイト:ステキなお部屋ね。

50 マモル:なぜここが?

51 ゾイサイト:あら、 正体さえ分かってしまえば調べは すぐにつきますわ、マモルちゃん。

52 マモル:何の用だ?

53 ゾイサイト:ねえ、もう正体もバレちゃってるんだしここらで決着をつけましょうよ。

54 マモル:決着だと?

55 ゾイサイト:そう、それぞれの虹水晶を懸けて勝負しましょう。

56 ゾイサイト:正々堂々と。

57 マモル:いいぜ 受けて立とうじゃないか。

58 ゾイサイト:そういいコね。

59 ゾイサイト:場所はベイエリアの超高層ビルスターライトタワーで どうかしら?

60 マモル:いいだろう。

61 ゾイサイト:じゃあきょうの夕方五時に待っているわ。

62 ゾイサイト:おやすみなさい、マモルちゃん。

Scene 4 — Tokyo Streets – Afternoon — Usagi, Mamoru, Rei (imagination)

63 ウサギ:そんじゃ、先生、 さようなら!

64 ウサギ:もう原田め…

65 ウサギ:みんなが待ってるっていうのにこういう日にかぎって居残りさせるんだから。

66 ウサギ:レイちゃんにまたバカにされる。

67 レイ:もう!ドジ グズ、 のろま、スカタン!

68 ウサギ:うん? あれは…

69 ウサギ:な~に 落ち込んでんのよ!

70 マモル: いてっ!

71 ウサギ:どしたの?

72 マモル:お-おだんご頭か…

73 マモル:いつも元気だな。

74 ウサギ:悪かったわね!

75 ウサギ:どうせあたしは年中無休のお元気娘ですよ!

76 マモル:その調子でいつまでも元気でいろよ。

77 ウサギ:えっ?

78 ウサギ:ヤダ、なによ調子狂っちゃうじゃない。

79 ウサギ:あれ?

80 ウサギ:血だ… いつの間に?

81 ウサギ:あっ、まさか…

82 ウサギ:アイツ… ケガしてんの?

Scene 5 — Bay Area Alley – Dusk — Mamoru, Usagi

83 マモル:おだんご!

84 ウサギ:何すんのよ~!

85 マモル:お前こそこんな所で何してんだ?

86 ウサギ:何って。

87 ウサギ:あんたのこと心配して来てあげたんじゃないのよ。

88 マモル:俺のこと?

89 ウサギ:あんたのそのケガ、そんな体でふらふら歩いてたら治んないわよ!

90 マモル:お前に関係ないだろ。

91 ウサギ:そりゃ、そうだけどさ…

92 マモル:さっさと帰れ!

93 ウサギ:そんな言い方ってないんじゃないの!

94 ウサギ:ちょっと、こら! 待ちなさいよ~

95 ゾイサイト:来たわね。

96 マモル:ゾイサイトか!

97 ウサギ:ヤダ!何これ? ウッソ~!

98 マモル:バカ! なんでついてきた?

99 ウサギ:だって~

Scene 6 — Shrine – Twilight — Rei, Makoto, Ami, Minako

100 レイ:いくら グズの うさぎでも遅すぎるわね。

101 アミ:家にも帰ってないって…

102 マコト:学校にもいなかったよ。

103 ルナ:通信機も通じないなんて絶対変よ。

104 レイ:いやな予感がするわ。

105 アミ:とにかくうさぎちゃんを捜さなくては…

106 ミナコ:スターライトタワーよ!

107 レイ:だ-誰?

108 アルテミス:もう僕たちのこと忘れちゃったの?

109 アミ:アルテミス!

110 アミ:じゃあ、あなたがセーラーヴィーナス?

111 ミナコ:ふだんは愛野ミナコ。

112 ミナコ:みんなと同じ中2。

113 アルテミス:僕たちの調査によると敵はスターライトタワーで何かをたくらんでいるようなんだ。

114 ミナコ:通信機が使えないのなら間違いないわ。

115 ミナコ:きっとうさぎちゃんは一人でスターライトタワーに乗り込んでいったのよ。

116 ウサギ:うさぎちゃんが そういうコならあたしだって苦労してないわ。

117 ミナコ:とにかく スターライトタワーへ急ぎましょう!

Scene 7 — Starlight Tower – Night — Mamoru, Zoisite, Usagi

118 ゾイサイト:ようこそ。

119 ゾイサイト:私たちの虹水晶はここへ置いておくわ。

120 ゾイサいト:さあ、あなたのも早く出しなさい。

121 マモル:その前にこのコを帰してやってくれ。

122 マモル:あなたが虹水晶を出したらね。

123 マモル:いいだろう。

124 マモル:なにがおかしい!

125 ゾイサイト:いいえ、うれしいのよ。

126 ゾイサイト:あなたがおバカさんだから。

127 マモル:はっ、しまった!

128 クンザイト:虹水晶は確かに頂いた。

129 マモル:ひ-ひきょうだぞ。

130 ゾイサイト:おっと、へたに動くとそこのお嬢ちゃんN黒焦げになるわよ。

131 クンザイト:ゾイサイト、あとは任せたぞ。

132 ゾイサイト:はい。

133 ウサギ:ゾ-ゾイサイト…

134 ウサギ:どうして ゾイサイトとアイツが?

135 ゾサイト:虫けらめ よくも私の顔に…覚えてらっしゃい!

136 ゾイサイト:地場マモル、虹水晶を取り戻したければ最上階の展望室まで おいで。

137 ウサギ:虹水晶? どうしてこの人が虹水晶のことを…

138 ゾイサイト:さあ、存分に恐怖を味わってちょうだい。

139 マモル:危ない!

140 マモル:逃げろ!

141 ウサギ:肩のケガ?きのうのタキシード仮面さまも肩を…まさかね。

142 ウサギ:もうヤダ~

143 マモル:エレベーターまで頑張れ!

144 ウサギ:早く開け! この~

145 ウサギ:助かった…

146 マモル:でもないぞ

147 ウサギ:ヤダ~ 何これ?

148 マモル:もう、どこへも行けないみたいだな。

Scene 8 — Outside Starlight Tower – Night — Ami, Rei, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Atremis

149 アミ:ここが問題のスターライトタワーね。

150 マコト:別にどうってことないビルだけど。

151 アミ:うさぎちゃんとマモルさんがエレベーターに。

152 レイ:ええ!どういうことよ。

153 アミ:扉は… 全部封鎖されているわ。

154 ルナ:中へ入れないってこと?

155 アルテミス:マズいな…

156 マコト:わが守護木星嵐を起こせ雲を呼いかずちを降らせよ!

157 マコト:シュープリーム サンダー!

158 マコト:強行突破あるのみ 行くぞ!

Scene 9 — Starlight Tower, Top Floor – Night — Zoisite, Kunzite

159 クンザイト:ふんっ、アリどもめ。

160 ゾイサイト:虹水晶は集めたし地場マモルも もはや手の内。

161 ゾイサイト:そのうえセーラー戦士も始末すれば…

162 クンザイト:頬の傷の恨み存分に晴らすがよい。

Scene 10 — Elevator – Night — Usagi, Mamoru

163 ウサギ:長いエレベーターよね。

164 ウサギ:ず~っと昇り続けているわ。

165 ウサギ:ねえ、どうしてあんたは虹水晶を?

166 ウサギ:あっ… ごめん 話したくなければ\Nそれでもいいのよ。

167 マモル:過去を取り戻すため。

168 マモル:記憶を取り戻すために虹水晶を集め幻の銀水晶を手に入れなくてはならないからさ。

169 ウサギ:銀水晶のことまで…

170 マモル:俺は六歳の時車の事故で両親と死に別れた。

Flashback — Hospital- Night — Young Mamoru, Doctor

171 医者:残念です。ご夫妻は手遅れでした。

172 医者:一人息子の衛君は 奇跡的に命を取り留めたのですが…

173 マモル:僕は誰?

174 マモル:分からない…

175 マモル:僕は… 誰なの?

176 マモル:それからずっと何も思い出せない。

177 マもル:そのころから何度も同じ夢を見るようになった。

178 ウサギ:銀水晶を… 幻の銀水晶をお願い。

179 マモル:俺は 銀水晶を手に入れ過去を取り戻したいんだ。

180 マモル:なんでこんなことまで話しちまったのかな。

181 ウサギ:あたしあんたのこと世界で1番やなヤツって思ってたけど2番目くらいに…しといてあげるわよ 。

182 マモル: サンキュー。

183 ウサギ:タキシード仮面さま?

184 ウサギ:ううん、そんなはずないわよ。

185 ウサギ:うん、絶対 ないわよ。

Scene 11 — Starlight Tower, Top Floor – Night — Kunzite

186 くんざいと:セーラー戦士ども、ここが 貴様らにふさわしい死に場所だ。

Scene 12 — Starlight Tower, Somewhere inside – Night — Rei, Ami, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Artemis

187 アミ:ああっ!な-何なの?

188 マコト:セーラーヴィーナス…

Scene 13 — Starlight Tower Transformed, Elevator – Night — Usagi, Mamoru, Zoisite

189 ウサギ:停電?

190 ゾイサイト:さようなら。

191 ウサギ:何?

192 ウサギ:どうしよう?セーラームーンになったら正体がバレちゃう。

193 ウサギ:でも…このままじゃ 二人とも死んじゃう。

194 ウサギ:ムーン プリズムパワーメイクアップ!

195 マモル:なに!

196 マモル:セーラームーン…

Scene 14 — Starlight Tower Transformed, Top Floor – NIght — Usagi, Mamoru, Zoisite, Ami, Rei, Makoto, Minako, Luna, Artemis

197 ゾイサイト:クイン・ベリルさまには地場マモルは事故で死んだ」って報告しなくっちゃね。

198 ウサギ:なにが事故よ!

199 ゾイサイト:なに?

200 ウサギ:ひきょうな手口で人々を惑わしあたしたち二人をいじめた罪はきっちり償ってもらうわよ!

201 ウサギ:このセーラームーンが月にかわって おしおきよ!

202 ゾイサイト: セーラームーン、タキシード仮面と 一緒に\N片づけてあげるわ。

203 ウサギ:何言ってんの?

204 ウサギ:タキシード仮面さまがどこにいるっていうのよ!

205 マモル:ここだ!

206 ウサギ:まさか…

Cutaway — Usagi’s Memories — Mamoru

207 マモル:もっと勉強しろ、おだんご頭。

208 マモル:泣いているばかりでは何も解決しないぞ。

209 マモル:おだんごが膨れあんパンになってるぞ。

210 マモル:きょうの主役は君だ、セーラームーン。

211 マモル:そんなに食うと肉まんになっちゃうぞ。

212 マモル:さらばだ、セーラームーン。

Cutaway End

213 ウサギ:あなたがタキシード仮面…

214 マモル:きょうの君は勇敢だった。

215 マモル:あとは私に任せるんだ。

216 ウサギ:ダメ! だって ケガしてるのに…

217 ウサギ:タキシード仮面さまこそ 逃げて!

218 マモル:セーラームーン 君は私が守る。

219 ウサギ:タキシード仮面さま…

220 ゾイサイト:じゃれるのは そのくらいにして今度こそ決着をつけようじゃないの、タキシード仮面。

221 マモル:いいだろう。ただし セーラームーンには手出しをしないと\N約束してもらおう。

222 ゾイサイト:もちろんよ。正々堂々とやりましょう。

223 ゾイサイト:正々堂々とね。

224 ゾイサイト:もらった!

225 ウサギ:しっかり しっかりして!

226 マモル:ケガは ないか、セーラームーン?

227 ウサギ:うん…

228 マモル:なに泣きそうな顔してんだ。

229 マモル:無事でよかった…

230 ウサギ:タキシード仮面、タキシード仮面!

231 ミナコ:遅かった…

232 レイ:タキシード仮面さま

233 ウサギ:タキシード仮面…

234 アルテミス:銀水晶だ!

235 ルナ:あれが 幻の銀水晶…

236 ミナコ:セーラームーン…

237 アミ:ど-どうなってるの?

238 ルナ:プリンセス… 月のプリンセス!

239 アルテミス:ついに目覚めたか…

Closing Theme, “Princess Moon”

240 昼には花のかおり
241 夜には星のまたたき
242 そこはだれもしらない世界なの
243 白いくつをならして
244 白い月のはしわたって
245 あまいキスのゆめをみてる
246 おヒメさまがすんでいるの

247 いのりをささげてムーン
248 きっとしあわせにしてくれる

249 まわれまわれ
250 月のメリーンゴーランド
251 すずし気なガラスのドレスひるがえして
252 いつだって見守っているわ
253 ムーン・ムーン・プリンセス



(Usagi: Iyami na aitsu ga Takishiido Kamen-sama datta nante.)
(Usagi: Of all things, that mean guy was Tuxedo Mask.)

Nante is a despective suffix, it’s mean to show some annoyance or disagreement about the verb phrase. In this case, Usagi is annoyed by the fact that Mamoru is Tuxedo Mask, a person she admires.

Datta is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of the copula da.

Also please note that we do not tend to translate address suffixes like -sama with an actual word because there is no consistent equivalency in English.

Takishiido Kamen is another superhero in the show. He shows up to throw a rose, say something marginally helpful, and then leave. He is a strange character.

ウサギ:そしてついに ゾイサイトタキシード仮面さま 一騎打ち

(Usagi: Soshite tsui ni Zoisaito to Takishiido Kamen-sama no ikkiuchi ga…)
(Usagi: And then, finally, Zoisite and Tuxedo Mask’s one-on-one fight…)

The ga here is the nominative particle.


(Usagi: Aaa, mou dou natte’ru no!)
(Usagi: Ah, what’s going on already?)

Please note that sentences often end in no, but it is syntactically speaking still the dependent noun, but you can treat it as an ending particle for practical purposes.

Natte’ru is the truncated indicativeactiveaffirmativeperiphrastic progressiveimperfect conjugation of naru.


(Usagi: Tonikaku ima no atashi ni dekiru koto wa aku wo taosu koto dake yo!)
(Usagi: At any rate, now, as for what I can do, [it] [is] only destroying evil!)

The use of ni here is a bit unusual. “NOUN にできること” is a common expression, and here ni here is marking the subject, who is the performer, but there is no precedent for this to not be in the nominative.

Please note that both koto is substantivizing the verb phrases.

Dekiru is the potentialactiveaffirmativeimperfect of suru. Dekiru is, of course, a separate stem, really, but practically it takes the place of suru in the potential mood.

Taosu is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation.


(Usagi: Tsuki ni kawatte oshioki yo!)
(Usagi: On behalf of the moon, [this] [will be] a punishment!)

Ni kawatte is a common expression, meaning “on behalf of.” Kawatte is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form of kawaru, meaning to take the place of.


(Gomen ne sunao janakute)
(Sorry, I am not obedient, and)

Janakute is the contracted indicativeactivenegativeTe-form conjugation of the copula da.


(Yume no naka nara ieru)
(If it [is] in [my] dreams, I can speak)

Ieru is the potentialactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of iu. Also, 云 and 言 both work for the word iu.


(Shikoukairo wa shooto sunzen)
([My] train of thought, [it] [is] on the verge of shorting.)

Remember that in Japanese the subject and the copula of the sentence, often drop out, which is why we will often be supplying those two things in brackets.


(Ima sugu aitai yo)
(I want to meet very soon)

The reason we do not put this “I” in brackets is because the use of the desiderative mood implies a personal desire. It’s uncharacteristic to talk of another’s desires this way outside of a quote.


(Nakitaku naru yo na moonlight)
([This] [is] the moonlight that makes me want to cry)

The na here is the pseudo-copula that is tying the verb phrase to the noun. Remember that in Japanese verb phrases modify nouns by directly preceding them.

Nakitaku is the desiderativeactiveaffirmative-adverbial conjugation of naku. Note that when we say adverbial we mean just that the -i semi-copula has taken the adverbial form of -ku.


(Denwa mo dekinai midnight)
([This] [is] the midnight that [I] cannot even call [you])

Keep in mind that when we say “call [you],” we mean to call by phone.

One can also make a case for this being word scrambling, where midnight is actually the topic of the sentences, moved to the end, which would make this sentence mean something like “At midnight, [I] cannot even call [you].”


(Datte junjou dou shiyou)
(But, [as for] [my] pure heart, what is one to do?)

Here we are understanding junjou to be the topic, and the topical particle has dropped out.

Shiyou is the volitionalactiveaffirmative conjugation of suru.


(Haato wa mangekyou)
([My] heart, [it] [is] a kaleidoscope)


(Tsuki no hikari ni michibikare)
([We] will be guided by the light of the moon)

Michibikare is the indicativepassiveaffirmativestem conjugation of michibiku, which is acting conjunctively.


(Nandemo muguriau)
(And we will meet fortuitously many times)

Muguriau is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation.


(Seiza no matataki kazue uranau koi no yukue)
(Count the twinkling of the constellations, and [you] will predicts the whereabouts of love)

We will suggest that the conventional order of this phrase is “Seiza no mataki wo kazue koi no yukue wo uranau,” and our translation is made in that light. The important things to note are that seiza no mataki and koi no yukue are direct objects here.

Kazue is the 1st imperative-active conjugation of kazueru.

Uranau is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation.

同じ地球生まれた ミラクル・ロマンス

(Onaji chikyuu ni umareta no mirakuru romansu)
([That] [we] were born on the same planet, [it] [is] a miracle romance)

We will suggest that the noun phrase “onaji chikyuu ni umareta no” is the topic of this sentence and that the topical particle dropped out.

信じている ミラクル・ロマンス
(Shinjite iru no miraruku romansu)
([My] believing in [this], [it] [is] a miracle romance)

Shinjite iru is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperiphrastic progressiveimperfect conjugation of shinjiru.

(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen sama wo taosu tame ni Zoisaito ga baketa nise-Seeraa Muun.)
(Usagi: [It] [was] a fake Sailor Moon that Zoisite turned into in order to defeat Tuxedo Mask.)

Taosu is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation.

Baketa is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of bakeru.

This would be a great time to remind you that our translations are not meant to be publication-worthy translations. We aren’t interested in creating English equivalents as much as we’re interested in telling you what the sentence is saying. If we wanted to write this in a way that sounded natural in English, we’d say “Zoisite turned into a fake Sailor Moon in order to defeat Tuxedo Mask.”


(Usagi: Sono wana ni manmato hamatte watashi-tachi mo dai-pinchi.)
(Usagi: [We] fell into that trap successfully, and for us, too, [this] is a big pinch.)

Pinchi is a loanword refers to a problem.

Hamatte is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form conjugation of hamaru, and is acting conjunctively.

The secondary particle mo has caused the topical particle to drop out. The reason mo is being used in the first place is because Tuxedo Mask’s being tricked and forced into a fight can be considered a pinch.


(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen sama mo kega wo shichatte mou taihen!)
(Usagi: As for Tuxedo Mask, too, [they] injured him, and [it] [is] already difficult.)

Note that we are not translating shimau and its variants lexically this time.  Shichatte is a contraction of shite shimatte, shite is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form of suru and shimatte is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form conjugation of shimau.


(Usagi: Seeraa Viinasu no toujou de toriaezu kiki wa dasshita kedo Seeraa Viinasu wa honto ni tsuki no purinsesu na no?)
(Usagi: Though with Sailor Venus’ appearance, as for the danger, [we] escaped [it] for now, as for Sailor Venus, is she truly the Moon Princess?)

The Moon Princess is someone the main characters are meant to protect, but they do not know who she is.

Dasshita is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of dassuru.

Note that this sentence ends with the dependent noun no, which has required the noun purincesu to take the na pseudo-copula for syntactic integrity.


(Usagi: Kore kara atashi-tachi dou nacchau no?)
(Usagi: From this, for us, what will happen?)

Kara is a post-position, and it refers to the departure from a point, which is why it is sometimes translated as “from,” and sometimes as “after.” But what Usagi is talking about here is that she’s wondering what will happen based on what has happened now.


(Hikari kagayaku gin suishou! Tsuki no Purinsesu Toujou)
(The Silver Crystal that Shines Light! The Appearance of the Moon Princess)

We will suggest here that the accusative particle wo has dropped out after hikari, and that the genitive particle no has dropped out after purinsesu. Or you can say that toujou is meant to become a verb with suru and that a nominative particle has dropped out. In any case, it semantically comes to the same thing.


(Makoto: Seeraa Vui, ie, Seeraa Viinasu.)
(Makoto: Sailor V, no, Sailor Venus.)

Sailor V is a famous superhero in her own right, and the press calls her Sailor V (for reasons unknown), but she’s actually just one of the Sailor Soldiers.


(Usagi: Mo-moshikashite anata ga purinsesu na no?)
(Usagi: Perhaps, you are the princess?)

Note again the sentence ending in no and a na having to be placed after the noun because of it.


(Minako: Iie, atashi wa anata-tachi to onaji purinsesu wo mamoru senshi no hitori.)
(Minako: No, as for me, [I] [am] a person that is a soldier that the same as you protects the princess.)

If you’re relatively new to Japanese, sentences ending in no and multiple subordinate clauses stacked on each other like this are not uncommon.

Mamoru is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation.

ウサギ:ウソみたい 憧れセーラーVちゃんいる

(Usagi: Uso-mitai… akogare no Seeraa Vui-chan ga me no mae ni iru.)
(Usagi: Like a lie… Sailor V of [my] yearnings is before [my] eyes.)

Uso-mitai might more idiomatically be translated as “like a dream.”


(Minako: Yoroshiku ne, minna.)
(Minako: A pleasure, everyone.)

This is a case where we make an exception to the translation rule. Yoroshiku is the adverbial conjugation of yoroshii, which means good. If we just wrote “well” in our translation, one might have no idea what we meant.

In Japanese, introductions tend to end with yoroshiku o-negai shimasu, which means “[I] ask you well,” which is means “I ask that you treat me well.” And as a conclusion to an introduction, it is like “A pleasure (to meet you)” in English.


(Minna: Yoroshiku.)
(Everybody: A pleasure.)


(Arutemisu: Tokoro de sekkaku atsumatta no ni nanda kedo boku-tachi wa aru basho no chousa-juu na n da.)
(Artemis: By the way, even though [you] have assembled at long last, though [that] is the case, as for us, [we] are in the middle of an investigation of a certain place.)

Note that the use of the compound particle no ni and the conjunction kedo is redundant, but it is what has been said.

Nanda is just na n da; do not mind much whether or not we separate them or write them together. Here the noun is actually “sekkaku atsumatta no.”

Atsumatta is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of atsumaru.


(Arutemisu: Kuwashii koto wa ashita yuugata Hikawa jinja he shuugou shite、 sono toki ni jaa, Runa, mata.)
(Artemis: As for the detailed thing, tomorrow evening assemble at Hikawa shrine; until that time, Luna.)

Hikawa shrine is the shrine Rei works at as a miko.

The kuwashii koto is the report on their findings.

Shite is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form of suru, acting imperatively.


(Runa: Ee, ashita ne.)
(Luna: Yeah, [until] tomorrow.)


(Minako: Jaa, minna, mata ne.)
(Minako: So, everyone, until [then].)


(Ami: Icchatta… angai sekkachi na no ne.)
(Ami: [They] left, unexpectedly impatient, aren’t they?)

Icchatta is a contraction of itte shimatta– shimatta is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of shimau.


(Usagi: Demo, kakkoii…)
(Usagi: But, [she] is cool…)


(Kunzaito: Kuin Beriru-sama, nani yue warera wo yobimodoshita no desu ka?)
(Kunzite: Queen Beryl, why have [you] summoned us?)

Yobidashita is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of yobidasu.

Nani yue is not a common expression, but it is just the interrogative pronoun nani and the noun yue, meaning “reason.” It’s an adverbial expression meaning “for what reason?” or “why?”


(Zoisaito: Ato ippo de niji suishou wo ubaitori Takishiido Kamen ni todome wo…)
(Zoisite: With the next step, we would snatch away the rainbow crystals, and [inflict] the finishing blow on Tuxedo Mask.)

The ellipsis here leave out the verb. We are not able to omit it without making an ungrammatical sentence, so we have supplied it in brackets as “inflict.”

The use to the verbal stem of ubaitoru is conjunctive.

Ato ippo de translates quite literally to with the next step, but it tends to be translated as “another;” what’s important it to express that they were close to fulfilling their goals.


(Kuin Beriru: Ooi naru shihaisha no meirei ja.)
(Queen Beryl: An order of the great ruler.)

Ooi naru is synonymous with ooi. It is just a fancy term.

The ja here is the contraction of de wa, marking the topic. The copula here has been omitted.


(Kunzaito: Ooi naru shihaisha?)
(Kunzite: Great ruler?)


(Kuin Beriru: Takishiido Kamen wa koroshite wa naranu.)
(Queen Beryl: As for Tuxedo Mask, you must not kill [him].)

The –nu here is an negative conjugation. It was part of an older form of Japanese, and is used only very rarely in Japanese, and only to convey something negative.

The use of the Te-form plus wa naranai (or in this case naranu) is just an prohibitive expression. So it means “to not X.”


(Kuin Beriru: Ikita mama koko he tsurete maire.)
(Queen Beryl: While still alive, bring [him] here.)

Maire is the active1st imperative conjugation of mairu.

Tsurete mairu means to “to take and come,” which effectively means “to bring.”

Ikita is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of ikiru.


(Zoisaito: Dou iu koto desu?)
(Zoisite: Why is [this]?)

Dou iu is an expression meaning literally “how [one] says?” and it is semantically equivalent to dou or donna or in some cases doudemo. One can see dou iu koto as a more formal expression for just doushite or dou or naze.


(Kuin Beriru: Eei, menrei ni setsumei nado nai.)
(Queen Beryl: Hey, there is no explanation, or the like, for the order.)

This is probably a fancy way of telling Zoisite that she does not owe him an explanation.

We are not exactly sure why Queen Beryl uses the dative instead of the genitive here.


(Kunzaito: Kokoroemashita.)
(Kunzaite: [We] have understood.)

Kokoroeru is roughly synonymous with wakaru, and it is being used as that verb is used to express acknowledgement.

Remember that various noetic verbs (verbs whose actions take place in the mind) tend to use the perfect conjugation to express that the action is in effect and not that it will happen. Not that one “will” understand, but that one “does” understand.


(Mamoru: Kusoh!)
(Mamoru: Shit!)

Note that the common translation of kusoh is shit, but kusoh does not actually mean feces. Rather, it’s a vulgar interjection made when one is frustrated.


(Mamoru: Mamoru koto ga dekinakatta…)
(Mamoru: I was not able to protect [Sailor Moon]…)

The expression that’s a verb phrase plus “koko ga dekiru” is equivalent to the potential mood. Thus mamorenakatta and mamoru koto ga dekinakatta are semantically equivalent.


(Mamoru: Seeraa Muun…)
(Mamoru: Sailor Moon…)


(Zoisaito: Suteki na o-heya ne.)
(Zoisite: A lovely room, no?)

Note the use of the honorific o- before heya. The honorific prefixes (o- or go-) can go before almost any noun, and regularly are, so do not take them too seriously.


(Mamoru: Naze koko ga?)
(Mamoru: How [are you] here?)

This is the conjunction ga, used like kedo to elicit a response from the person being spoken here, meaning more fully “Tell me, how [are you] here?”

ゾイサイト:あら 正体さえ分かってしまえば調べすぐつきますマモルちゃん

(Zoisaito: Ara, shoutai sae wakatte shimaeba shirabe wa sugu ni tsukimasu wa, Mamoru-chan.)
(Zoisite: Oh, when I finished understanding your true form, as for investigating, [I] quickly commenced [that], Mamoru.)

Shoutai means “true form,” but in the context of superheroes it refers to one’s secret identity. Henceforth we’ll say “secret identity.”

Sae is a suffix that marks the most important thing is a sentence. Here it’s the importance of know his secret identity in order to find him.

We’ve translated wakatte shimaeba as “when… finished understanding.” This is the -eba conjugation of wakatte shimau, which means “to finish understanding,” or “to finish learning.” The eba conjugation is not always meant to be taken in purely conditional terms. More properly it helps conjoin two actions, where the second action, the result, is being emphasized. So in English that it better conveyed with a temporal clause: “when…”

The use of the address suffix –chan for Mamoru is meant to be teasing. A lot of Zoisite’s character is based on him being homosexual.


(Mamoru: Nani no you da?)
(Mamoru: For what reason is [this]?)


(Zoisaito: Nee, mou shoutai mo barechatteru n da shi kokora de kecchaku wo tsukemashou yo.)
(Zoisite: Well, because it is the case that even [your] secret identity is already exposed, let us settle things somewhere around here.)

Barecchatteru is the truncated indicativeperiphrastic progressiveactiveaffirmative conjugation of barecchau, which is itself a contraction of barete shimau.

Tsukemashou is the politevolitionalactive conjugation of tsukeru.

The expression kecchaku wo tsukeru means literally “to affix a conclusion,” but it means “to settle things.” We point this out for the sake of the next sentence.


(Mamoru: Kecchaku da to?)
(Mamoru: [This] is a conclusion, [you say]?)

The to here is the quotative particle. In our translation we supplied the verb that in English would make that clear.


(Zoisaito: Sou, sorezore no niji suishou wo kakete shoubu shimashou.)
(Zoisite: So, let us put each of [our] rainbow crystals on the line, and have a match.)

With the conjunctive Te-form, it will adopt the mood of the governing verb, the one at the end. In this case, shimashou is in the volitional mood, so we consider kakete to be volitional, too.


(Zoisaito: Seiseidoudou to.)
(Soisite: Fair and square.)

Seiseidoudou is one of a few adverbs that takes to as an adverbial marker. (It is probably the quotative marker, a remnant of a longer expression, or something of that sort.)

Seiseidoudou more literally means “neat and fair” or something like that. But it is equivalent to “fair and square.”


(Mamoru: ii ze. Uketetatou ja nai ka.)
(Mamoru: Good. I will take on the challenge, won’t I?)

Uketetatou is the volitionalactive conjugation of uketatsu.

Ja nai here is an equivalent to the ending particle ne. The compound particle ne ka is an anime-ish thing to say. It is just both particles. Ne expresses one’s desire for the other person’s validation. Ka makes this a question, or casts doubt on it. What Mamoru wants to express here is that he wants to know if this is what Zoisite wants him to do.


(Zoisaito: Sou, ii ko ne.)
(Zoisite: That’s right, [you are] a good child, aren’t you?)

The use of ko here is another teasing of Mamoru.

ゾイサイト:場所ベイエリア超高層ビルスターライトタワー どうかしら

(Zoisaito: Basho wa bei eria no choukousou biru Sutaaraito Tawaa de dou kashira.)
(Zoisite: As for the place, at Starlight Tower, the skyscraper of the bay area, what [do you think], I wonder?)

Keep in mind that dou is also used to ask for another’s confirmation when you make a suggestion.


(Mamoru: Ii darou.)
(Mamoru: [That] is probably good.)

Darou and its variants are basically equivalent to ne. In day-to-day conversations what separates darou from ne is that darou marks things that will probably happen- future events. In anime, sometimes it will not.


(Zoisaito: Jaa kyou no yuugata go-ji ni matte iru wa.)
(Zoisite: Well then, [I] will be waiting this evening at 5.)

Matte iru is the indicativeperiphrastic progressiveactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of matsu.


(Zoisaito: O-yasuminasai, Mamoru-chan.)
(Zoisite: Goodnight, Mamoru.)

O-yasuminasai is an expression that is equivalent to “good night.” It’s is actually the 2nd-imperative conjugation of yasumu with the honorific prefix attached.


(Usagi: Son ja, sensei, sayounara!)
(Usagi: Well then, teacher, goodbye!)

Son ja is a contraction of sore ja.


(Usagi: Mou Harada me…)
(Usagi: Again stupid Harada…)

Harada is Usagi’s teacher.

Me is a despective suffix. It’s highly inappropriate to use it towards one’s teacher.


(Usagi: Minna ga matte’ru tte iu no ni kou iu hi ni kagitte inokori saseru n da kara.)
(Usagi: Because even though I say that everyone is waiting on such a day as this [she] makes [me] do detention.)

The ni kagitte expression means more literally “restricting to.” It marks a time that gives the rest of the action some new relevance. In this case, it marks the day when it would be very inconvenient to receive detention.

Kou iu is just like dou iu, being equivalent to konna or kou.


(Usagi: Rei-chan ni mata baka ni sareru.)
(Usagi: I will be made a fool of by Rei.)

Sareru is the indicativepassiveactiveimperfect conjugation of suru.


(Rei: Mou! Doji, guzu, noroma, sukatan!)
(Rei: Again! Clutz, dullard, blockhead, fool!)


(Usagi: Un? Are wa…)
(Usagi: Hm? That…)


(Usagi: Naani ochikonden no yo!)
(Usagi: What? Don’t be down!)

Ochikonden is probably a truncation of the imperative negativeperiphrastic progressiveactive conjugation of ochikomu, which would regularly be ochikonde iru na.

マモル: いてっ

(Mamoru: Iteh!)
(Mamoru: Ouch!)

Iteh is itai, and itai, besides being an adjectival verb, also works as an interjection to exclaim one’s pain.


(Usagi: Do shita no?)
(Usagi: What happened?)

Do is a shortening of dou, which is very common. Dou shita is a bit of an expression used when you want an explanation of something. In this case, it is because Mamoru is in a lot of pain after Usagi merely slapped him.


(Mamoru: O-odango atama ka…)
(Mamoru: Dango head?)

O-dango atama is Mamoru’s main nickname for Usagi, based on the two ball of hair on her head that look like dango, which are mochi dumplings.


(Mamoru: Itsumo genki da na.)
(Mamoru: [You] are always energetic, aren’t you?)


(Usagi: Warukatta wa ne!)
(Usagi: [That] has been bad, hasn’t it?)


(Usagi: Douse atashi wa nenjuumukyuu no o-genki musume desu yo!)
(Usagi: In any case, as for me, [I] am a lady that is energetic every day of the year.)

Note that one would expect genki to take the pseudo-copula na. Here that has been omitted. Do not think much of it.


(Mamoru: Sono choushi de itsumade genki de iro yo.)
(Mamoru: Be with spirit with that tone always.)

Genki de iru is an expression, meaning “to be with spirit/energy.” Because it’s an expression there is a second instrumental particle here instead of the comitative particle.


(Usagi: Eh?)
(Usagi: Huh?)


(Usagi: Yada, nani yo choushi kurucchau ja nai.)
(Usagi: No, what? [His] tone, [it] is amiss, isn’t it?)

Ya is a truncation of iya, which is a noun used as an interjection to express displeasure or disagreement.

Note that the topical particle after choushi has been omitted.


(Usagi: Are?)
(Usagi: What?)

Are is a pronoun used as an interjection to express surprise or doubt about something. Here Usagi is questioning the red on her hand.


(Usagi: Chi da… Itsu no aida ni?)
(Usagi: [This] is blood. At what interval?)

X no aida ni means “during the interval of X,” which means that something happened within the timeframe of X, so it is a bit more vague than no toki. If you wanted to translate this more naturally, you’d just say “When?”


(Usagi: Ah, masaka…)
(Usagi: Ah, can it be…?)


(Usagi: Aitsu… kega shiten no?)
(Usagi: That guy… is he injured?)

Kega shiten is the truncated indicativeactiveperiphrastic progressiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of kega suru.


(Mamoru: O dango!)
(Mamoru: Dango!)

Here Mamoru is referring to Usagi.

We tend to not try to translate honorific prefixes lexically because they are much more common in Japanese than any kind of honorific pronoun is in English.


(Usagi: Nani sun no yoo!)
(Usagi: What are you doing?!)

Sun is the truncated indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of suru.

Nani sun is a very common expression in Japanese.


(Mamoru: Omae koso konna tokoro de nani shiten da?)
(Mamoru: What are you doing in a place like this?)

Koso is an emphasizing suffix, akin to sae. Here we have chosen to express that emphasis with italics.

Shite is a truncated indicativeactiveperiphrastic progressiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation con suru.


(Usagi: Nani tte.)
(Usagi: What [did you say?])

Tte is a casual quotative particle. The verb and the interrogative particle have been omitted. But what is being conveyed is that Usagi is questioning why Mamoru is questioning her.


(Usagi: Anta no koto shinpai shite kite ageta n ja nai no yo.)
(Usagi: As for you, [I] started to get worried (for your sake), okay?)

The use of no koto after pronouns and names merely points out that the person is the object of an action. Strictly speaking, it is not mandatory, but it is very common.

The use of the Te form plus kuru means “to begin to X.”

The use of the n after ageta allows Usagi to use ja nai (here equivalent to ne). The last no is the use of that substantivizing dependent noun as marking an explanation. This is why she followed him.


(Mamoru: Ore no koto?)
(Mamoru: Me?)


(Usagi: Anta no sono kega, sonna karada de furafura aruitetara naonai wa yo!)
(Usagi: That injury of yours, if you walk unsteadily with such a condition, [it] will not heal!)

Karada mostly refers to one’s body, but it can also refer to one’s health and general condition.

Note that the topical particle after kega has been omitted.

Naonai is a truncated form of the indicativeactivenegative-imperfect conjugation of naosu.


(Mamoru: Omae ni kankei nai daro.)
(Mamoru: [This] has no connection to you, does it?)

Kankei nai is a common expression meaning something like “it’s none of your business.”

This is one of those cases where daro and its counterparts are used in a way more akin to ne and have little to do with making predictions about the future.


(Usagi: Sorya, sou da kedo sa…)
(Usagi: As for that, though that is the case…)

Sa is a more exclamatory suffix than sae and koso. The latter two are more about noting the importance of the word it is precedes.


(Mamoru: Sassato kaere!)
(Mamoru: Quickly go home!)

Kaere is a very common exclamation, really meaning to go somewhere safe.

It is the 1st imperativeactive conjugation of kaeru.


(Usagi: Sonna iikata tte nai n ja nai no!)
(Usagi: There will be no talking that way, will there?!)

The phrase “X wa (or tte) nai” is a bit of an expression, meaning literally that “there will not be X,” which, given its context, means that X is something that is not necessary or something that really won’t/can’t exist. In this case, it’s talking about necessity. It’s Usagi telling Mamoru that he does not need to talk to her that way.

Also note the n ja nai no again. This is just a case of anime characters using an abundance of ending particles. It just happens.


(Usagi: Chotto, kora! Machinasai yoo!)
(Usagi: Wait, hey! Wait!)

Machinasai is the 2nd imperativeactive conjugation of matsu.

Kora is just a counterpart to the interjection hora.


(Zoisaito: Kita wa ne.)
(Zoisite: [You] came, didn’t you?)


(Mamoru: Zoisaito ka!)
(Mamoru: Zoisite?!)


(Usagi: Yada! Nani kore? Ussoo!)
(Usagi: Agh! What [is] this? [I hope this is] a lie!)

Usso is a common exclamation as well. Here we provide an explanation of where it comes from. It’s similar to English, “You have to be kidding me.”


(Mamoru: Baka! Nande tsuitekita?)
(Mamoru: Idiot! For what reason did you follow [me]?)

Nande is the interrogative pronoun nan and the instrumental particle, which is equivalent to “why?” So you can use that in your translation as well.


(Usagi: Dattee.)
(Usagi: But.)


(Rei: Ikura guzu no Usagi demo oso-sugiru wa ne.)
(Rei: How long? Even for dullard Usagi, [she] is too tardy, isn’t she?)

The use of ikura here is to ask how much longer she’ll take.

The use of de mo to mean “even for” is a bit unusual, but worth noting. The function of the instrumental particle here seem to be the basic function of marking an instrument, in this case an instrument of a standard, as in “even with Usagi (as the standard for tardiness)” (This is mostly speculation. Don’t quote us on this one.)


(Ami: Ie ni mo kaette nai tte…)
(Ami: [They say] that she is not going home, even.)

The use of the periphrastic progressivenegative often conveys that something has not yet happened, or that it is is a continuous state of not happening, “is not going home.” But a more appropriate translation would be “is has not yet gone home.”

Kaette nai is the truncated indicativeperiphrastic progressiveactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of kaeru.

The use of the casual quotative particle here is used to indicate that this is information Ami heard from another, probably from her family when she called.


(Makoto: Gakkou ni mo inakatta yo.)
(Makoto: She was not at school, even.)


(Runa: Tsuushin-ki mo tsuujinai nante zettai hen yo.)
(Luna: Such a thing as the communication device, [it], too, not going through, [it] [is] absolutely strange.)

Nante is a substantivizing suffix, and it adds the meaning of “something like,” in a bit of a despective tone, meaning it’s something that the speaker would rather not be true.

Tsuujinai is the indicativeactivenegativeimperfect conjugation of tsuujiru, meaning “to communicate,” or, more properly, “to go through.” It describes the connection of two things, mostly ideas in communication, things being understood and the like. Here it means that the communication device doesn’t work, or that they cannot reach her.


(Rei: Iya na yokan ga suru wa.)
(Rei: [I] get a disagreeable premonition (from this.))


(Ami: Tonikaku Usagi-chan wo sagasanakute wa…)
(Ami: In any case [we] need to search for Usagi.)

What has been left out of this sentence is either naranai or ikenai, which make of the expression nakute wa naranai/ikenai, meaning “As for not X-ing, it will not become [so]/cannot go,” which means that one must X.


(Minako: Sutaaraito Tawaa yo!)
(MInako: Starlight Tower!)


(Rei: Da-dare?)
(Rei: Who [are you?])


(Arutemisu: Mou boku-tachi no koto wasurechatta no?)
(Artemis: Already [you] have forgotten [us]?)

Wasurechatta is the contraction of wasurete shimatta.


(Ami: Arutemisu!)
(Ami: Artemis!)


(Ami: Jaa, anata ga Seeraa Viinasu?)
(AmI: Well then, you [are] Sailor Venus?)


(Minako: Fudan wa Aino Minako.)
(Minako: As for [what is] usual, [I am] Minako Aino.)

Fudan wa is a common expression, it can be translated as “usually.”


(Minako: Minna to onaji chuu ni.)
(Minako: Same as all [of you], [I am] a second year middle school student.)

Chuu ni is an abbreviation of chuugakkou ninensei, meaning “middle school, second year student.”

Note that onaji takes the comitative particle to express that one is the same as.


(Arutemisu: Boku-tachi no chosa ni yoru to teki ni Sutaaraito Tawaa de nanika wo takurande iru you na n da.)
(Artemis: According to our research, [it] is like the enemy, [they] are scheming something in Starlight Tower.)

You is a dependent noun meaning “like” or “similar to.” This is used here apparently to express a bit of uncertainty about their conclusion.


(Minako: Tsuushin-ki ga tsukaenai no nara machigai nai wa.)
(Minako: If it is the case that [one] cannot use the communication device, then there is no mistake.)

Note the use of the nominative to mark the direct object. Tsukaenai is the potentialactivenegativeimperfect conjugation of tsukau– but tsukaeru is often used to mean something like “to be serviceable,” which, with this definition, would take the nominative.


(Minako: Kitto Usagi-chan wa hitori de Sutaaraito Tawaa ni norikonde itta no yo.)
(Minako: Surely, Usagi, [she] entered Starlight Tower alone.)

Note that the periphrastic progressive will often describe that the effects of an action that is still, well, in effect, and not necessarily that the action is still going on. Thus what is being communicated in this sentence is not that the Usagi is performing the action of entering Starlight Tower, but that she is in Starlight Tower and facing everything that the action implies, i.e. that she’s in trouble.

ルナ:うさぎちゃん そういうならあたしだって苦労してない

(Runa: Usagi-chan ga souiu ko nara atashi datte kurou shite nai wa.)
(Luna: If Usagi was such a girl, even I would not face hardships.)

What we believe Luna is saying here is that she thinks Minako is wrong, and that she is with someone, because Usagi is not pro-active in that way (because she knows she depends on other people.)

Note that datte here is a suffix, similar to mo, meaning “even.” Here Luna is using it because it’s really the other Sailor Soldiers who pick up Usagi’s slack.

ミナコ:とにかく スターライトタワー急ぎましょう

(Minako: Tonikaku Sutaaraito Tawaa he isogimashou!)
(Minako: In any case let’s hurry to Starlight Tower!)

Isogimashou is the politevolitionalactive conjugation of isogu.


(Zoisaito: Youkoso.)
(Zoisite: Welcome.)


(Zoisaito: Watashi-tachi no niji suishou wa koko he oite oku wa.)
(Zoisite: Our rainbow jewels, [we] will place [them] here.)

Note the uses of oku here. Oku means “to lay,” or “to place.” But with the Te-form it becomes an expression meaning “to do something for future benefit.” This is part of a very common expression, meaning to do something for a future benefit. Here the future benefit is to ensure that during their fight neither of them runs away.


(Zoisaito: Saa, anata no mo hayaku dashinasai.)
(Zoisite: So, Quickly take out yours, too.)

Note the omission of the object modified by anata no. This is very common with genitives of possession.

Dashinasai is the 2nd imperativeactive conjugation of dasu.


(Mamoru: Sono mae ni kono ko wo kaeshite yatte kure.)
(Mamoru: Before that, send this girl back.)

Note the use of the Te-form and yaru, which basically means the same thing as the verb, but it sounds rougher and it is very anime-ish.

Kure is the 1st imperativeactive conjugation of kureru.


(Mamoru: Anata ga niji suishou wo dashitara ne.)
(Mamoru: If you take out the rainbow crystals, okay?)

Dashitara is the activeaffirmativetara conjugation of dasu.


(Mamoru: Ii darou.)
(Mamoru: [It] will be fine, won’t it?)

This is a case where darou marks a prediction about the future.


(Mamoru: Nani ga okashii!)
(Mamoru: What is funny?!)


(Zoisaito: iie, ureshii no yo.)
(Zoisite: No, [I] am happy.)

Please keep in mind that in anime no is practically another ending particle. One can identify some special uses for in real life conversations, but here, where it appears so often, one can hardly find a meaning for it other than filler.


(Zoisaito: Anata ga o-baka-san da kara.)
(Zoisite: Because you are an idiot.)


(Mamoru: Hah, shimatta!)
(Mamoru: Ah, [it] happened completely!)

Shimatta is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of shimau. Its equivalence to “damn it” comes from something having happened in its entirely, and that being to the speaker’s detriment.


(Kunzaito: Niji suishou wa tashika ni itadaita.)
(Kunzite: As for the rainbow crystals, surely [we] received [them].)

Itadaku is a humble verb meaning “to receive.” One says itadakimashita when one has received something from another. Here Kunzite uses it to tease Mamoru, for obviously they weren’t a gift.


(Mamoru: Hi-hikyou da zo.)
(Mamoru: [This] is cowardice!)

Note that we are translating zo, an emphatic ending particle, with an exclamation mark here. Yo is much more common and have many more uses than exclamation marks which is why we do not translate them as exclamation marks. Zo is more in line with an exclamation mark.


(Zoisaito: Otto, heta ni ugoku to soko no o-jou-chan ga kurokoge ni naru wa yo.)
(Zoisite: Hold up, if you move imprudently, the young lady there will turn into a burnt black thing.)

Note that the first dative (dative of manner) can be translated adverbially. “In a manner imprudent” is equivalent to “imprudently.”

The to here is the conditional conjunction.


(Kunzaito: Zoisaito, ato wa makaseta zo.)
(Kunzite: Zoisite, the rest, [I] have entrusted [it] [to you.])

Makaseta is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeperfect conjugation of makaseru, meaning “to entrust.” Makaseta is used common as an expression, meaning that one has entrusted the matter to someone.


(Zoisaito: Hai.)
(Zoisite: Understood.)

Hai is often translated as “yes,” but it second meaning is an acceptance/confirmation of what someone else has said. It’s important to keep this in mind.


(Usagi: Zo-Zoisaito…)
(Usagi: Zoisite…)

ウサギ:どうして ゾイサイトアイツ…?

(Usagi: Dou shite Zoisaito to aitsu ga…?)
(Usagi: Why [are] Zoisite and this guy…?)

The rest of this sentence, we presume, would be a verb meaning “to fight.”

Please check the vocabulary entry where we explain dou shite.


(Zoisaito: Mushikera-me yokumo watashi no kao ni… oboete-rasshai!)
(Zoisite: Damn insect, how dare you [cut] my face… Remember!)

The verb, again, has been omitted for the kao ni noun phrase, but we assume it would mean “to cut.”

Oboete rasshai is an honorific conjugation equivalent to oboete inasai. Rasshai is a verbal suffix that has the permanent features of being activeaffirmative, and the only imperative it accepts is a variation of the 2nd imperative.

ゾイサイト:地場マモル虹水晶取り戻したければ最上階展望室まで おいで

(Zoisaito: Chiba Mamoru, niji suishou wo torimodoshitakereba saijoukai no tenbou-shitsu made oide.)
(Zoisite: Mamoru Chiba, if you want to retrieve the rainbow crystals, come up to the viewing room, which is the top floor.)

Torimodoshitakereba is the desiderativeactiveaffirmativeeba conjugation of torimodosu.

Oide is a verbal expression that is generally used for one’s inferiors. Zoisite speaks strangely.


(Usagi: Niji suishou? Dou shite kono hito ga niji suishou no koto wo…)
(Usagi: Rainbow crystals? What [is] this person [looking for] the rainbow crystals?)

Again, the verb has been omitted, and we have supplied it. This is one of those cases where we cannot afford make the sentence as syntactically similar as the Japanese without creating an ungrammatical sentence. Thus the effect of the ellipsis is lost.


(Zoisaito: Saa, zonbun ni kyoufu wo ajiwatte choudai.)
(Zoisite: So, please savor dismay freely.)

The Te-form plus choudai is an expression. It means that “X-ing will be abundant.” It is an invitation to do something.

Zonbun ni is also an expression, meaning “to one’s heart’s content,” or “as much as one likes.”

This, of course, is a sarcastic remark, because nobody wants to be in a dangerous situation.


(Mamoru: Abunai!)
(Mamoru: [This] is dangerous!)

Abunai is an adjectival verb meaning “dangerous.” Like urusai and itai, it is used as an interjection. Its English equivalent is “Watch out!”


(Mamoru: Nigero!)
(Mamoru: Run away!)

Nigero is the 1st imperativeactive conjugation of nigeru. Remember that verbs whose stems end in epsilon take /o/ as the imperative suffix instead of /e/.


(Usagi: Kata no kega? Kinou no Takishiido Kamen-sama mo kata wo… masaka ne.)
(Usagi: [His] shoulder injury? Yesterday’s [night], Tuxedo Mask’s, too, [hurt] [his] shoulder… could it be, no?)

The yoru after kinou no has dropped out. This is a bit akin to saying “the other night.”

The verb, again, has been omitted, and we have supplied it.


(Usagi: Mou ya daa.)
(Usagi: Again, agh!)

Stylistically ya da is written in katakana, but do not let that fool you. It is iya da.


(Mamoru: Erabeetaa made ganbare!)
(Mamoru: Keep going up to the elevator!)

Ganbare is the 1st imperativeactive conjugation of ganbaru.


(Usagi: Hayaku ake! Konoo.)
(Usagi: Open quickly! This…)

Ake is the alternative 1st-imperativeactive conjugation of aku.


(Usagi: Tasukatta…)
(Usagi: [We] have been saved…)


(Mamoru: Demo nai zo.)
(Mamoru: But [it] will not be!)

Demo nai is a common expression, meaning that, despite one’s expectations, that may not become the case. In this case, Mamoru is denying Usagi’s expectation that they have been saved, because the elevator, too may be dangerous. That is why it is popularly, and properly, translated as “perhaps not,” “I think not.”

ウサギ:ダ~ これ

(Usagi: Yadaa Nani kore?)
(Usagi: No! What [is] this?)


(Mamoru: Mou, doko he mo ikenai mitai da na.)
(Mamou: Darn, it seems that [we] can’t go anywhere, doesn’t it?)

Mou is sometimes used as an interjection. This is one of those cases. If you wish to not take it as an interjection, we recommend saying “…we can’t go anywhere anymore.”


(Ami: Koko ga mondai no Sutaaraito Tawaa ne.)
(Ami: Here [is] the Starlight Tower of [our] questions, right?)

A more suitable translation of mondai no would be in question, as in the building that we’re wondering about, that we have questions about.


(Makoto: Betsu ni dou tte koto nai biru da kedo.)
(Makoto: But [it] is a building that is not particularly special.)

Dou tte koto nai is a colloquial expression. It comes from dou iu koko nai, meaning something like “there is nothing to mention.”


(Ami: Usagi-chan to Mamoru-san ga erabeetaa ni.)
(Ami: Usagi and Mamoru [are] in the elevator.)


(Rei: Ee! Dou iu koto yo!)
(Rei: Huh! What kind of thing [is this?]?)

We covered dou iu previously. Remember that it is semantically equivalent to to donna or dou.


(Ami: Tobira wa… zenbu fuusa sarete iru wa.)
(Ami: The door, [it] is being completely blocked.)

Sarete iru is the indicativeperiphrastic progressivepassiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of suru.


(Runa: Naka he irenai tte koto?)
(Luna: [Is] is that [you think] we cannot enter inside?)


(Arutemisu: Mazui na…)
(Artemis: [That is] horrible, isn’t it?)


(Makoto: Waga jugo mokusei arashi wo okose kumo wo yobe ikazuchi wo furase yo!)
(Makoto: My planet [of] protection, Jupiter, cause a storm! Summon clouds! Bring down thunder!)

As with English, Japanese on a colloquial level considers thunder to be like lightning, an electric discharge.

We have supplied periods after every imperative.

マコト:シュープリーム サンダー

(Makoto: Shuupuriimu Sandaa!)
(Makoto: Supreme Thunder!)


(Makoto: Kyoukoutoppa aru nomi. Iku zo!)
(Makoto: There is only forcing one’s way through. Let’s go!)


(Kunzaito: Fun, Ari-domo-me.)
(Kunzite: Hm, damn ants.)

Domo is a pluralizing suffix. It’s what you find in kodomo. Sometimes that isn’t made clear. It tends to be used by superior to refer to inferiors. Me is the same derisive suffix.


(Zoisaito: Niji suishou wa atsumeta shi Chiba Mamoru mo mohaya te no uchi.)
(Zoisite: Because, as for the rainbow crystals, we have collected them, Mamoru Chiba, too, [is in] the palm of our hands.)

Note that the use of mo here is to refer to the fact that they have both Mamoru and the rainbow crystals.


(Zoisaito: Sono ue Seeraa Senshi mo shimatsu sureba…)
(Zoisite: Furthermore, if [we] get rid of the Sailor Soldiers, too…)


(Kunzaito: Hoho no kizu no urami zonbun ni harasu ga yoi.)
(Kunzite: As for [your] grudge for the wound on [your] cheek, refreshing oneself to one’s heart’s content would be good.)

What Kunzite means here is that Zoisite should attack Mamoru, that he’d be refreshed if he got back at Mamoru.

The X ga yoi expression is easy enough to understand syntactically if you supply a substantivizer at the end of the verb phrase X. It’s really a suggestion that one do something.


(Usagi: Nagai erabeetaa yo ne.)
(Usagi: [This is] a long elevator, isn’t it?)


(Usagi: Zutto nobori tsudzukete iru wa.)
(Usagi: [We] are going up continuously.)


(Usagi: Nee, dou shite anta wa niji suishou wo?)
(Usagi: Hey, as for you, what [are you looking for] the rainbow crystals?)

Note that the verb, even when it wasn’t a copula, was omitted.

ウサギ:あっごめん 話したくなければそれいい

(Usagi: Ah… gomen, hanshitakunakereba sore de mo ii no yo.)
(Usagi: Oh.. Sorry, if [you] do not want to take, that, too, is fine.)

The de mo in sore de mo ii are the instrumental and secondary particle. A more literal translation would be “With that, too, [the situation] is fine/good.”

Hanashikatunakereba is the desiderativeactivenegativeeba conjugation of hanasu.


(Mamoru: Kako wo torimodosu tame.)
(Mamoru: In order to retrieve the past.) 

The tame here is from tame ni– and the ni got omitted.


(Mamoru: Kioki wo torimodosu tame ni niji suishou wo atsume maboroshi no gin suishou wo te ni irenakute wa naranai kara sa.)
(Mamoru: Because, in order to retrieve [my] memories, [I] must gather the rainbow crystals and obtain the phantom silver crystal.)

Atsume is in its indicativeactiveverbal stem conjugation, which is acting conjunctively.

Irenakute is the indicativeactivenegativeTe-form conjugation of ireru. This is used for the sake of the Xte wa naranai expression, meaning “As for not X-ing, [it] will not become,” meaning “one must do X.”


(Usagi: Gin suishou no koto made…)
(Usagi: Even the silver crystal…)

The use of made in a form similar to the secondary particle mo is not uncommon. What made implies is that it’s an extreme. So not only does Mamoru want the rainbow crystals, he’s gone so far as to seek the silver crystal.


(Mamoru: Ore wa roku-sai no toki kuruma no jiko de ryoshin to shin ni wakareta.)
(Mamoru: As for me, when I as 6 years old, [I] was separated by death from my parents due to a car accident.)

Note that the verb wakareru takes the comitative particle.

Note that the no in no toki is the attributive form of the copula da. Both da and datta will turn into no, which is curious.


(Isha: Zannen desu. Go-fusai wa teokure deshita.)
(Doctor: [This] is deplorable. As for the married couple, [it] was too late.)

What the doctor is talking about here is that they treated the parents too late.


(Isha: Hitori musuko no Mamoru-kun wa kisekiteki ni inochi wo toritometa no desu ga…)
(Doctor: As for Mamoru, who is the only son, though miraculously his life was spared…)

Here the doctor uses the conjunction ga because, although Mamoru survived, he has now lost his memories.


(Mamoru: Boku wa dare?)
(Mamoru: As for me, wo [am I]?)


(Mamoru: Wakaranai…)
(Mamoru: I don’t know…)


(Mamoru: Boku wa… dare na no?)
(Mamoru: As for me, who am [I]?)

The use of na here is because Mamoru used no, which, as a noun, requires the pseudo-copula na when another noun modifies it.


(Mamoru: Sore kara zutto nanimo omoidasenai.)
(Mamoru: Since that [i.e. the accidental] continuously [I] cannot remember anything.) 

A cleverer translation for zutto would be “never,” as in “[I] never can remember anything.”

Omoisasenai is the potentialactivenegativeimperfect conjugation of omoidasu.


(Mamoru: Sono koro kara nandomo onaji yume wo miru you ni natta.)
(Mamoru: Since around that [time], it has come to be that I have the same dream many times.)

Note that you ni naru is a bit different than you ni, where the latter ni is the dative of manner and the former is the object dative. The former describes something coming about that wasn’t there before. The later is to say that something happens in the form of something else, which is a metaphorical statement.


(Usagi: Gin suishou wo maboroshi no gin suishou wo onegai.)
(Usagi: [I] request… the silver crystal.. the phantom silver crystal.)

Onegai is a trunctation of onegai shimasu, which is an expression meaning “to request.”


(Mamoru: Ore wa gin suishou wo te ni ire kako wo torimodoshitai n da.)
(Mamoru: As for me, I want to obtain the silver crystal and retrieve [my] past.)

Remember that verbal stems will take on the mood of the governing verb. Thus ire, from ireru, is desiderative, like tomoridomoshitai (desiderativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect )


(Mamoru: Nande konna koto made hanashi chimatta no ka na.)
(Mamoru: How did we end up talking about a thing like this, I wonder?)

Hanshi chimatta is a contraction of hanashite shimatta.

We’ve translated hanashi chimatta as “did… end up talking about,” which we do to partially convey the meaning of shimau, which is to do something and for that thing to be strange or inconvenient.


(Usagi: Atashi anta no koto sekai de ichiban ya na yatsu tte omotteta kedo niban me kurai ni… shitoite ageru wa yo.)
(Usagi: As for me, though [I] thought that you were the number one horrible guy in the world, [I] will move [you] to around the second position.)

Normally, there would be a copula after yatsu, but it has been omitted. Ya is still iya– and thus the na is the pseudo-copula.

Shitoite is shite oite, shite being the Te-form of  suru, here meaning “to move,” which is common when it works with the dative, to refer to some transfer of some point A to point B. The oite is the Te-form of oku, which is the verb that means that something is being done for some future benefit. Here the future benefit will be when she banters with him next time and needs to call him horrible.

マモル: サンキュー

(Mamoru: Sankyuu.)
(Mamoru: Thank you.)


(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen-sama?)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask?)


(Usagi: Uun, sonna hazu nai wa yo.)
(Uagi: No, there is no such expectation..)

Hazu is a very common dependent noun. It means something like “expectation” “X hazu” means “X should be.” So one could translate this to “Such a thing should not be.”


(Usagi: Un, zettai nai wa yo.)
(Usasgi: Yes, of course there is no [possibility].)


(Kunzaito: Seeraa Senshi-domo, koko ga Ki-sama-ra ni fusawashii shi ni basho da.)
(Kunzite: Sailor Soldiers, this is a place to die appropriate for you.)

Ki-sama is a very old pronoun, once used to a superior, now used in lots of anime and video games. That honorific address suffix now means nothing. Note the use of the pluralizing suffix -ra.

The dative in shi ni is the dative of purpose. It is not seen too often when not used with the verbs iku and kuru.


(Ami: Aah! Na-nani na no?)
(Ami: Agh! What is [this]?)


(Makoto: Seeraa Viinasu…)
(Makoto: Sailor Venus…)


(Usagi: Teiden?)
(Usagi: A power outage?)


(Zoisaito: Sayounara.)
(Zoisite: Farewell.)


(Usagi: Nani?)
(Usagi: What?)


(Usagi: Dou shiyou? Seeraa Muun ni nattara shoutai ga barechau.)
(Usagi: What will I do. If [I] become Sailor Moon, my secret identity will be exposed.)

Shiyou is the volitionalactive conjugation of suru. Dou shiyou is a common expression, meaning “What will I do?”

Barechau is a contraction of barete shimau.


(Usagi: Demo… Kono mama ja futari to mo shinjau.)
(Usagi: But… As for as this [is], two people certainly will die.)

Shinjau is a contraction of shinde shimau.

To mo is a compound particle, from the comitative particle and secondary particle. It works like a suffix, really, and it means something like “certainly,” and brings extra focus to the object, in this case, meaning that is is “both of us” who will die, meaning that if they do die, there will be no Sailor Moon anyway.

ウサギ:ムーン プリズムパワーメイクアップ!

(Usagi: Muun Purizumu Pawaa Meiku Appu!)
(Usagi: Moon Prism Power Make Up!)


(Mamoru: Nani!)
(Mamoru: What?!)

Not even Mamoru knew Usagi was Sailor Moon, even though Sailor Moon’s outfit is practically identical to Usagi’s regular school uniform plus some boots and a tiara.


(Mamoru: Seeraa Muun…)
(Mamoru: Sailor Moon…)


(Zoisaito: Kuin Beriru-sama ni wa Chiba Mamoru wa jiko de shinda tte houkoku shinakuccha ne.)
(Zoisaito: To Queen Beryl, as for Mamoru Chiba, [I] will have to report that [he] died in an accident, won’t it?)

Shinakuccha is contraction of the activenegativeeba conjugation of suru. This is a truncation of the nakereba naranai expression we saw before.

Note the double use of the topical particle. Using the topical particle twice happens very rarely in Japanese, but it does happen.


(Usagi: Nani ga jiko yo! )
(Usagi: What is an accident?!)


(Zoisite: Nani?) 
(Zoisite: What?)


(Usagi: Hikyou na teguchi de hitobito wo madowashi atashi-tachi futari wo ijimeta tsumi wa kicchiri tsugunatte morau wa yo!)
(Usagi: [You] you deceive people with a cowardly trick, and as for the crime that is persecuting us you, [you] will punctually pay [for that].)

Madowashi is the indicativeactiveverbal stem of madowasu, and it is acting conjunctively.

ウサギ:このセーラームーンかわって おしおき

(Usagi: Kono Seeraa Muun ga tsuki ni kawatte oshioki yo!)
(Usagi: This Sailor Moon [is] on behalf of the Moon a punishment!)

The use of kono before one’s name is an expression. It basically means “me, X.” So you can translate as such.

ゾイサイト: セーラームーンタキシード仮面 一緒に片づけてあげる

(Zoisaito: Seeraa Muun, Takishiido Kamen-sama to issho ni katadzukete ageru wa.)
(Zoisite: Sailor Moon, [I] will take care of [you] and Tuxedo Mask together.)

Please make sure you understand the way ageru, kureru, and morau function.


(Usagi: Nani itten no?)
(Usagi: What are [you] saying?)

Itten is the truncated indicativeactiveperiphrastic progressiveimperfectaffirmative conjugation of iu.


(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen-sama ga doko ni iru tte iu no yo!)
(Usagi: You say that Tuxedo Mask is where?!)

Note that this is really an indirect question.


(Mamoru: Koko da!)
(Mamoru: [He] is here!)


(Usagi: Masaka…)
(Usagi: Could it be…)


(Mamoru: Chotto benkyou shiro, o-dango atama.)
(Mamoru: Study some more, Dango Head.)

Chotto is often translated as “a little,” which is fine, but another translation is “a bit more,” and that is equally applicable.


(Mamoru: Naite iru bakari de wa nanimo keikatsu shinai zo.)
(Mamoru: As for with nothing but crying, [you] will not resolve anything.)

Bakari is a substantivizing suffix. A more literary translation of this sentence, which might be necessary right now, is “By doing nothing but crying you won’t resolve anything.”


(Mamoru: O-dango ga fukure an pan ni natte’ru zo.)
(Mamoru: [If] [you,] Dango[,] keep expanding and [you] will turn into a red bean bun.)

Fukure is the indicativeactive verbal stem of fukureru. It is being used conditionally, but that conditional interpretation is a spin-off of the conjunctive use. X happens and then Y will happen can contextually be equivalent to Y will happen if X happens.


(Mamoru: Kyou no shuyaku wa kimi da, Seeraa Muun.)
(Mamoru: Today’s leading part, [it] is you, Sailor Moon.)


(Mamoru: Sonna ni kuu to nikuman ni nacchau zo.)
(Mamoru: If you eat like that, [you] will become a meat dumpling.)

Nacchau is a contraction of natte iru.


(Mamoru: Saraba da, Seeraa Muun.)
(Mamoru: [This] is farewell, Sailor Moon.)


(Usagi: Anata ga Takishiido Kamen…)
(Usagi: You [are] Tuxedo Mask…)


(Mamoru: Kyou no kimi wa yuukan datta.)
(Mamoru: Today’s you, [you] have been heroic.)

Note that kyou no kimi sounds very strange in English, but one quickly gets the idea. We recommend the more literary translation “you today.”


(Mamoru: Ato wa watashi ni makaseru n da.)
(Mamoru: As for the rest, [you] will entrust [it] to me.)

Makaseru is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation. Sometimes this conjugation is used as an imperative. This is one of those cases. So feel free to translate this as “Entrust the rest to me.”


(Usagi: Dame! Datte kega shite’ru no ni…)
(Usagi: No good! But, even though, [you] are hurt…)

Datte and no ni have very similar meanings, and in your translation you can just say “but.” Japanese does sometimes use multiple conjunctions that mean the same thing for emphasis, here the emphasis being that this injury is a problem.

ウサギ:タキシード仮面さまこそ 逃げて

(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen-sama koso nigete!)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask, run away!)

Nigete is the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form conjugation of nigeru. This is the imperative use of the Te-form.


(Mamoru: Seeraa Muun, kimi wa watashi ga mamoru.)
(Mamoru: Sailor Moon, as for you, I will protect [you].)

This is a bit of a play on words, in you. His name is Mamoru, so it sounds like he’s saying that he is Mamoru.


(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen-sama…)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask…)


(Zoisaito: Jareru no wa sono kurai ni shite kondo koso kecchaku wo tsukeyou ja nai no, Takishiido Kamen.)
(Zoisite: As for being amused, although [this is] almost that thing, at this moment, let us settle the dispute, okay, Tuxedo Mask?)

This is perhaps the most complicated sentence in the episode. Let us consider ni shite to be functionally a conjunction (and you see that Te-form shite functioning conjunctively.) As such, we have a first verb phrase: “Jareru no wa sono kurai,” which means “As for being amused [this] is almost that.” Sono is referring to jareru no. The second verb phrase is “kondo koso kecchaku wo tsukeyou,” which is the noun kondo and the active-volitional conjugation of tsukeru, which is in the expression kecchaku wo tsukeru, which we saw at the beginning of the episode.


(Mamoru: Ii darou. Tadashi Seeraa Muun ni wa tedashi wo shinai to yakusoku shite moraou.)
(Mamoru: Fine. Provided that if, as for Sailor Moon, [she] does not meddle, you keep [your] promise.)

The use of ni wa in this case is hard to describe, because we do not fully understand it ourselves. Ni wa does often come up in negative sentences where you’d expect just the topical particle. It seems to be something idiomatic.


(Zoisaito: Mochiron yo. Seiseidoudou to yarimashou.)
(Zoisite: Of course. Let us do [this] fair and square.)

Remember that seiseidoudou is one of these adverbs that takes a to adverbial marker.


(Zoisaito: Seiseidoudou to ne.)
(Zoisite: Fair and square, right?)


(Zoisaito: Moratta!)
(Zoisite: [I] have received!)

This is another expression. This is the Japanese equivalent to “I’ve got you.” As in, “I have received the opportune moment.)


(Usagi: Shikkari shikkari shite!)
(Usagi: Hold on! Hold on!)


(Mamoru: Kega wa nai ka, Seera Muun.)
(Mamoru: As for wound, there are non [on you,] Sailor Moon?)


(Usagi: Un…)
(Usagi: No…)

This is Usagi answering Mamoru’s question.


(Mamoru: Nani naki-sou na kao shite n da.)
(Mamoru: What? [You] are making a face that looks like it will cry.)

Shite is a truncation of the indicativeactiveperiphrastic progressiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of shite iru. What probably happened is that Mamoru meant to say shiten n da, and one of those /n/’s dropped out.


(Mamoru: Buji de yokatta…)
(Mamoru: By [your] safety [it] was fine…)

The “it” here is him being stabbed again.

X de yokatta” tends to be translated as “I’m glad that X,” which is fine, and there is an equivalency there, but its literal translation is more “By X, [(something)] is fine.”


(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen, Takishiido Kamen!)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask, Tuxedo Mask!)


(Minako: Osokatta…)
(Minako: [We] are late…)

Osokatta is the perfect conjugation of osoi. The reason it is conjugated in the past even though it has a present effect is because with certain verbs the Japanese ear defaults to a future tense interpretation- and osoi is one of them. The noetic verbs are most of the others.


(Rei: Takishiido Kamen-sama.)
(Rei: Tuxedo Mask.)


(Usagi: Takishiido Kamen…)
(Usagi: Tuxedo Mask…)


(Arutemisu: Gin suishou da!)
(Artemis: [It] is the Silver Crystal!)


(Runa: Are ga maboroshi no gin suishou…)
(Luna: That [is] the Phantasmic Silver Crystal…)

Maboroshi no is often translated as “legendary,” which is fine, but keep in mind that it is legendary in the sense that it may be talked about but nobody has actually seen in.


(Minako: Seeraa Muun…)
(Minako: Sailor Moon…)


(Ami: Do-dou natteru no?)
(Ami: What is happening?)

Natteru is the truncated indicativeactiveperiphrastic progressiveaffirmativeimperfect conjugation of natte iru.

ルナ:プリンセス… 月のプリンセス

(Runa: Purinsesu… Tsuki no purinsesu!)
(Runa: Princess… The Moon Princess!)


(Arutemisu: Tsui ni mezameta ka…)
(Artemis: Has she finally awoken?)


(Hiru ni wa hana no kaori)
(At midway, [there is] a scent of flowers)

Hiru normally does not take a dative, but it can. Ni wa here is the dative of time and the topical particle. They do not have a nuanced meaning together.


(Yoru ni wa hoshi no matataki)
(In the evening, [there is] the twinkling of the stars)


(Soko wa daremo shiranai sekai na no)
(As for there, [it] is a world that nobody knows)

Note the use of the substantivizing dependent noun no and the required na because of it.


(Shiroi kutsu wo narashite)
(Sounding white shoes)

This seems to be participial use of the Te-form narashite, from the indicativeactiveaffirmativeTe-form of narasu.

The more natural translation of this would be “making noise with white shoes”


(Shiroi tsuki no hashi watatte)
(Crossing over the bridge of the white moon)


(Amai kisu no yume wo miteru)
([I] have a dream of a sweet kiss)

This is a case of progressive aspect being used to express an action that is still in effect. So it does not mean that she right now is having the dream, but that it has stuck with her and she probably has that dream recurrently.


(O-hime-sama ga sundeiru no)
(The princess is residing [in the dream])


(Inori wo sasagete muun)
(Consecrate a prayer to the moon.)

Here we are taking muun to be an indirect object with its dative particle having dropped out. That is what makes most sense to us, if we take this Te-form to be imperative, which we do.)


(Kitto shiawase ni shite kureru)
(Surely it will make [the prayer] into happiness.)


(Maware maware)
(Revolve revolve)

You may also say “spin, spin.”

Maware is the 1st imperative-active conjugation of mawaru.


(Tsuki no meriingoorando)
(The merry go round of the Moon)


(Suzushi-ge na garasu no doresu hirugaeshite)
(Wave the cool feeling glass dress)

Ge is a suffix meaning “giving the feeling off.” Suzushi is the verbal stem of suzushii.

We are taking the Te-form hirugaeshite as being imperative.


(Itsu datte mimamotte iru wa)
([I] will always be watching over [you])


(Muun Muun Purinsesu)
(Moon Moon Princess)

Particles and Company

In this section, we’ll be talking about Japanese case declension particles and post-positions

Grammatical Case —  When we speak of case, we are talking about a general form a noun will take that will establish its relationship to the other words in a sentence. In English, there is a bit of case declension in the pronouns, such as he, him, and his.

The number of cases in Japanese is highly disputed. We currently like a model with seven cases topical, nominative, genitive, dative, locative, accusative, instrumental, comitative and vocative. That sounds like a lot, but thankfully Japanese has only one declension pattern. In many other languages, there are 4 or 5 patterns. So this is easy.

Nominative が

  1. Subject Nominative — marks the subject of a sentence. This is really the only use of the nominative one sees on a regular basis.
  2. Object Nomanative — in rare cases, a direct object will be marked with が for emphatic purposes

Genitive の (The genitive has a nifty translation trick: Translate “X no Y” as “Y of X,” and that will by and large give you a good idea of its purpose in the sentence.)

  1. Possessive Genitive — marks an owner of something.
  2. Categorical Genitive — marks the category or class to which another belongs
  3. Temporal Genitive — works with some time related nouns to talk about a thing “as it in at X time”
  4. Locational Genitive — works with some nouns to mark where a thing is.
  5. SSubject Genitive — in subordinate clauses, not just quotes, every now and again the subject will be marked with the genitive

Dative に

  1. Directional Dative — marks the place or direction to which an action is directed
  2. Locational Dative — used with the copulae いる and ある, marks the place in which a thing exists
  3. Manner Dative (a.k.a. the Adverbial Dative) — marks the manner in which something occurs. If one can make the noun adverbial, that will normally be a fine translation
  4. Transitional Dative — marks a new state or position due to an action. This is the dative that works with なる and する
  5. Objective Dative — marks an object in an action. Some verbs simply take the dative rather than the accusative.
  6. Oblique Dative — marks the agent/performer of an action (normally seen with the passive voice) and the indirect object of an action
  7. Temporal Dative — marks the time in which something occurs
  8. Purpose Dative — marks the reason for the action occurring

Accusative を

  1. Objective Accusative — marks the direct object of an action. This is by and large the only popular use of the accusative
  2. Movement Through Accusative — marks movement through

Instrumental で

  1. Causative Instrumental — marks the reason for something occurring
  2. Means Instrumental — marks the means, or the tools with which an action occurs

Comitative と

  1. Parallel Comitative — marks an object that has the same syntactic role as another verb. This is the one that gets translated as “and.”
  2. Accompaniment Comitative — marks an accompaniment to another noun. This is the one that gets translated as “with.” The noun 同じ will mark its object with this と, meaning “same with” or “same as.” Various verbs will use this a bit in an ablative sense, as marking a separation “from.”

Topical  — marks the topic of a sentence. It is rare that a sentence have more than one topical phrase, but it does occasionally happen. It has a causal counterpart: って

Locative へ — shares its function with the Directional Dative. Pronounced as /e/.

Vocative Ø — used to address someone. There is no case particle for this one.

Quotative Particle と

Japanese has one particle that doesn’t mark a case, but rather a verb phrase, a subordinate clause governed by another verb. This is most often used for quotations, both direct and indirect, of what a person is thinking or saying.

The other function of this particle is to mark certain adverbs, mostly adverbs that are onomatopoetic, which are utterances or sounds made by objects and living things.

It has a casual counterpart: って. (Yes, it looks identical to the casual topical particle.)

Secondary Particle も

Japanese has a few other secondary particles, but this one is by far the most popular. It has the meaning “too” or “even.” It goes after the (primary) case particle. However, when it pairs with は, が, or を, the primary particle drops out.


Post-Positions are particles that give us spatio-temporal information about a noun. They tell us when and where they are.

から — refers to the point of departure. We tend to translate this as “from” or “after.” It has a conjunction counterpart.

まで — refers to the endpoint, or an extreme. We tend to translate this as “to” or “until” or “up to.” It is often used like the secondary particle も, where what it is referring to specifically is that the noun, too, is extreme. I didn’t burn down the house, but the town, too.

で — refers to a place where something occurs. We tend to translate this as “at” or “in.” It’s easy to distinguish when to use で and when to use the dative because the action with で starts and ends in the same place.

Compound Particles 

Japanese allows for primary particles now and again to pair up, and sometimes the definition changes, i.e. there is some nuance to the meaning, but most of the time there isn’t. We want to address some of them here.

では — of elusive origins. It is the more formal counterpart of the topical は, and evidently it uses は. There is also a では where the topic is the location of an action, and thus the post-position で is in use, evidently. This often gets contracted to じゃ.

のに — is actually the dependent noun の and the manner dative. “X no ni Y” expresses that Y is occurring in a manner where X is also in effect. The nuanced meaning here is that X is something unexpected or seemingly contradictory. This is why it is translated as “although.”

には — is the oblique dative and the topical particle. This is often used in sentences where the verb is negative in order to mark the crux of the negativity. Otherwise, it is normally just an object being both the topic and the dative in one of its uses.

でも — this is not the conjunction, but the one that gets translated as “even for,” which is the means instrumental and the secondary particle. Its meaning is now idiomatic, i.e. how we got to this meaning is lost to us mostly, but our theory is that this instrumental is marking a person who serves as a standard. The other theory is that it comes from something like ではも, where the は drops out and you’re left with でも.

Verb Conjugations

In Japanese, verbs usually conjugate through a series of suffixes for mood, voice, pole, and tense. Please refer to our Verbs article from the Starter Kit for more detailed information.


Indicative — the indicative mood indicates whether something does or does not happen in reality. This mood has a zero suffix, which means that it purposefully lacks a suffix.

Potential — the potential mood indicates whether something can or cannot happen. Its suffix is -e (for the so-called u-verbs) or -rare (for the so-called ru-verbs)

Causative — the causative mood indicates that someone or something is made or not make to do something. Its suffix is -ase (for the so-called u-verbs) or -sase (for the so-called ru-verbs)

Desiderative — the desiderative mood indicates that the speaker wants something to happen. Its suffix is -itai (for the so-called u-verb) or -tai (for the so-called ru-verbs). The i, actually, is the place of the temporal and polar suffixes. So with the desiderative you get the order of suffixes being voice-mood-pole-tense


Active — in the active voice, the subject of the sentence is the performer of the action. The active voice has a zero suffix.

Passive — in the passive voice, the subject is what is affected by the action, and the performer is normally marked by the dative case. Its suffix is -are (for the so-called u-verbs) or –rare for the so called ru-verbs)

Note that there are many verbs that, although active, are passive in meaning, meaning that the subject will have something happen to it. So please always check its dictionary entry.

Pole and Tense

The pole and tense are difficult to think of as two separate things, so we will describe them as 4 suffixes.


Affirmative — indicates the action does occur

Negative — indicates that the action does not occur


Imperfect — indicates that the action is not yet complete, which means that in translation it can be either future or present. Japanese has a habit of defaulting to future for many verbs

Perfect — indicates that the action has been completed, which means in translation that it can be either past or past perfect.

Affirmative Imperfect Suffix -u (for the so-called u-verbs) or -ru (for the so-called ru-verbs)

Affirmative Perfect Suffix -ζ+a (we will explain ζ in a moment)

Negative Imperfect Suffix -anai (for the so-called u-verbs) or -nai (for the so-called ru-verbs)

Negative Perfect Suffix -anakatta (for the so-called u-verbs) or -nakatta (for the so-called ru-verbs). Note that this katta is actually -ζ+a. Remember that!


The Te-form is an interesting suffix that causes lot of strange morphological phenomena to happen. The thing that causes the weird stuff to happen we call ζ, and in the Te-form we have -ζ + e. ζ also functions with the affirmative imperfect.

The functions of the Te-form are many, but it is either acting conjunctively, as a gerund, an imperative, or in expressions using a verb immediately following it, which is ultimately a conjunctive function.

The Te-form takes the position of the tense.

Verbal Stem

The verbal stem is the absence of the suffixes for pole and tense. The so-called u-verbs will take a -i at the end and the ru-verbs will take nothing. This is used more than anything for conjunctive purposes, or when certain suffixes attach themselves the verb and then become nouns. It is very similar to the Te-form.

Secondary Moods

Secondary Moods are what we are calling (for now) all those moods that act differently from the four already mentioned.

1st Imperative — indicates a command. Suffix : -e (for the so-called u-verbs) -ro or -yo (for the so-called ru-verbs)

2nd Imperative — indicates a command. Suffix — -inasai (for the so-called u-verbs) or -nasai (for the so-called ru-verbs)

Volitional — indicates an invitation to action, but not quite a command. In Japanese this mood can also be co-hortative, meaning that both the speaker and the listener will do it together. Suffix: -ou

Negative Imperative — indicates that something must not happen. Suffix: -una (for the so-called u-verbs) or -runa (for the so-called ru-verbs) (This makes it look like it is active-imperfect.)

These previous 4 seem to have a hard time admitting polarity or tense, and with these there is no real tense or tense.

-tara conditional — expresses the condition of something occurring. This one focuses on the condition itself. Suffix: -ζ+a+ra This suffix will disallow tense to be expressed.

-eba — expresses the condition of something occurring. This one focuses on the result. Suffix: -eba (for the so called u-verbs) -reba (for the so-called ru-verbs) This suffix, too, will disallow tense to be expressed.

For these two conditional moods, the verbs can also be indicative, potential, causative, or desiderative.

Periphrastic Progressive

Aspect refers to the way in which an action occurs in time. Essentially, Japanese’s verbs are vague when it comes to aspect, and thus we call it simple aspect, i.e. an action just happens or it doesn’t happen.

However, there is a periphrastic progressive, which is a use of the Te-form with the copula iru to indicate progressive aspect. This is expressed as “to be X-ing,” i.e. that the action, or the effects of the action, are occurring (or valid) throughout an extent of time.


Truncation is simply when parts of a verb are dropped out. Most commonly this is the /i/ in the copula iru when one is using the periphrastic progressive. Other times, the -ru suffix will turn into -n, which may be a form of contraction but we will place it under truncation.


In Japanese, there is a thing called Teineigo (丁寧語), which refers to the use of the suffix -ます, which attaches to the verbal stem to function as the polar/temporal suffix. All this does semantically is add some politeness to what is being said.

Affirmative Imperfect -masu

Affirmative Perfect -mashita

Negative Imperfect -masen

Negative Perfect -masen deshita

Characters and Items

Usagi Tsukino — the main character of the show. As a Sailor Soldier, she takes on the role of Sailor Moon. Mamoru will often call her o-dango atama in reference to the buns on her head that look like the popular Japanese snack. In this episode, we learn that she is also the Moon Princess.

Mamoru Chiba — Usagi’s love interest, basically. He has the secret persona of Tuxedo Mask. He likes teasing Usagi.

Ami Mizuno — the smart one. She is Sailor Mercury. She has water powers because in Japanese the planet Mercury is the Water Star, or 水星 (すいせい).

Rei Hino — the temperamental one. She is Sailor Mars. She has fire powers because in Japanese the planet Mars is the Fire Star, or 火星 (かせい).

Makoto Kino — the sporty one. She is Sailor Jupiter. She has thunder powers because in Japanese the planet Jupiter is the Wood Star, or 木星 (もくせい) and wood powers would be dumb.

Minako Aino — the cool one. She is Sailor Venus. She makes a much later appearance than the rest of the Sailor Soldiers and already has already been quite active because she comes from a mini-series by the same author called Codename: Sailor V. Her powers are based on gold chains because Venus in Japanese is the Gold Star, or 金星 (きんせい).

Luna — the black cat. Luna is a talking cat that tells the Sailor Soldiers what to do.

Artemis — the white cat. Artemis is also from Codename: Sailor V, where he is Sailor V’s sidekick. He also talks and tells the Sailor Soldiers what to do.

Queen Beryl — the villain. She basically sends her goons to do her bidding while she sits on a throne and waves her hands in front of an evil crystal ball.

Zoisite — the goon. He is a very unlikable guy. He’s after the rainbow crystals because Queen Beryl told him to. He also dislikes Mamoru intensely. He’s also Kunzite’s lover/boyfriend. (In the original English dub by DIC they made him a woman to not cause controversy since they marketed this show towards kids- even though the more you think about this show the less it looks like it’s for kids.)

Kunzite — the top bad guy. Basically, for the entire first season, Sailor Moon and company go defeating the goons one by one, and Kunzite is the top one. (In the original English dub by DIC he was called Malachite.)

The Rainbow Crystals — the rainbow crystals are these magical jewels that Zoisite was sent to capture for Queen Beryl.

The Phantom Silver Crystal — a very elusive crystal that Mamoru mainly is searching for. We don’t really know what it does or why anyone really needs it at this point.


危ない (あぶない) — (adjectival verb) dangerous | (interjection) “Watch out!”

あげる — (verb) to give, for the speaker to give another; (with Te-from) for the speaker to do something that benefits another (see also kureru and morau)

間 (あいだ) — (noun) during; interval; time

あいつ — (pronoun) that thing, that person, something or someone not close to the speaker or the listener

味わう (あじわう) — (verb) to savor

開ける (あける) — (verb) to open something

憧れ (あこがれ) — (noun) yearning, desire

悪 (あく) — (noun) evil

あまい (あまい) — (adjectival verb) sweet

あなた — (pronoun) second-person pronoun – you

案外 (あんがい) — (adverb) unexpectedly

あんパン — (noun) bread with red bean paste inside

嵐 (あらし) — (noun) storm, tempest

あれ — (pronoun) that thing, something close to neither the speaker or the listener

アリ — (noun) ant

ある (1) — (verb) copula; for there to be, for there to exist used for inanimate objects

ある (2) — (adjective) a certain

歩く (あるく) — (verb) to walk

あした — (noun) tomorrow

頭 (あたま) — (noun) head

あと (1) — (noun-adverb) later

あと (2) — (noun) the rest, what remains

あと一歩 (あといっぽ) — (noun) another, one more; (literally) the next step

集まる (あつまる) — (verb) to assemble (intransitive)

集める (あつめる) — (verb) to assemble something (transitive)

合う (あう) — (verb) to meet, to gather

バカ — (noun) idiot; stupid [na]

バカにする — (verb) to make a fool [of]

ばかり — (suffix) nothing but, merely, only

化ける (ばける) — (verb) to appear in disguise, to take the form of another

番 (ばん) — (suffix) place, position; guard

バレる — (verb) to be revealed, to be exposed

場所 (ばしょ) — (noun) place, position

勉強 (べんきょう) — (noun) studying [suru]

別に (べつに) — (adverbial phrase) not particularly; not special

ビル — (noun) building

僕 (ぼく) — (pronoun) first-person pronoun, masculine tone

無事 (ぶじ) — (noun) safety

ちゃん — (address suffix) used between young girls and for children and pets

血 (ち) — (noun) blood

地球 (ちきゅう) — (noun) the planet, Earth

ちょっと — (adverb) a little bit | (interjection) “Wait a moment!”

ちょうだい — (noun) abundant, a lot [na]

超高層ビル (ちょうこうそうびる) — (noun) skyscraper

調査 (ちょうさ) — (noun) investigation [suru]

調子 (ちょうし) — (noun) pitch, tone, manner, style, demeanor

中 (ちゅう) — (suffix) inside, in the middle of

中学校 (ちゅうがっこう) — (noun) middle school

だ — (noun) copula, to be. Irregular polite form: です Formal form: である Formal humble form : でございます | Attributive form: の, many nouns take の when they want to modify another noun in order to create the needed verb phrase to do so.

大 (dai) — (prefix) big, large

だけ — (suffix) only

ダメ — (noun) no good [na]

誰 (だれ) — (pronoun) who?

だれも — (pronoun) anybody, everyone

だろう — (verbal expression) used as an ending suffix: perhaps, maybe, right?, I wonder… Variants: だろ (truncated): でしょう (polite), でしょ (polite, truncated) Probably coming from だよ

脱する (だっする) — (verb) to escape; to get out

出す (だす) — (verb) to take out; to show

だって — (conjunction) but, and yet, sometimes in an enclitic position

出来る — (verb) to be able to do, potential counterpart to する

でも — (conjunction) but, from the Te-form of だ and the secondary particle

電話 (でんわ) — (noun) telephone

度 (ど) — (suffix) times

ドジ — (noun) clumsiness, clumsy [na]

どこ — (pronoun) where?

ども — (suffix) pluralizing suffix

どう — (adverb) how? what?

どうせ — (conjunction) anyway, in any case

どうなっている — (interjection expression) “What’s going on?”

どうして — (verbal expression) why? for what reason?

どうしよう — (verbal expression) “What to do?” “What will I do?”

どういう — (verbal expression) equivalent to どう, どんな or どうして

エラベーター — (noun) elevator

ふだん — (noun) normal, regular, standard [na]

膨れる (ふくれる)— (verb) to get big, to bulge, to swell

ふらふら — (adverb) unsteadily, staggering [to]

降らす (ふらす) — (verb) to send down

夫妻 (ふさい) — (noun) married couple

ふさわしい — (adjectival verb) appropriate

二人 (ふたり) — (noun) two people

封鎖 (ふうさ) — (noun) blockade [suru]

が — (conjugation) but

学校 (がっこう) — (noun) school

頑張る (がんばる) — (verb) to persist; to try one’s best;

気 (げ) — (suffix) giving a sense of, somewhat

元気 (げんき) — (noun) energetic, lively, in good spirits, well [na]

銀 (ぎん) — (noun) silver

五 (ご) — (number) five

ごめん — (noun-expression) pardon, “Sorry”

グズ — (noun) dullard

ハート — (noun) heart

はい — (interjection) “Yes” “Understood” “Agreed”

はまる — (verb) to fall into (a trap)

花 (はな) — (noun) flower

話す (はなす) — (verb) to speak

晴らす (はらす) — (verb) to clear away, to dispel (transitive)

はし — (noun) bridge

早く (はやく) — (adverb) quickly, from 早い

はず — (dependent noun) it should be, it must be

変 (へん) — (noun) strange [na]

へた — (noun) bad at, imprudent, untactful [na]

部屋 (へや) — (noun) room

日 (ひ) — (noun) day

光 (ひかり) — (noun) light, rays of light

ひきょう — (noun) cowardice, unfairness [na]

ひめ — (noun) princess

昼 (ひる) — (noun) morning

ひるがえす — (verb) to wave (a piece of clothing)

人 (ひと) — (noun) person

人々 (ひとびと) — (noun) people

一人 (ひとり) — (noun) one person

一人で (ひとりで) — (adverbial expression) alone

一人息子 (ひとりむすこ) — (noun) only son

本当 (ほんとう) — true, real [na]

星 (ほし) — (noun) star, planet, celestial body

報告 (ほうこく) — (noun) report, information [suru]

一 (いち) — (number) one

家 (いえ) — (noun) house

いい — (adjectival verb) good

いいえ — (interjection) no

いいこ — (noun) good child

いじめる — (verb) to torment, to harass, to bully

いかずち — (noun) thunder

生きる (いきる) — (verb) to live

一騎打ち (いっきうち) — (noun) one-on-one fight [suru]

行く (いく) — (verb) to go

いくら — (adverb) how long? how much?

今 — (noun) now

今すぐ — (adverbial expression) right now, at once

命 (いのち) — (noun) one’s life

居残り (いのこり) — (noun) detention, being kept at school

いのり — (noun) prayer

いる — (verb) copula; for there to exist, used for animate object

入る (いる) — (verb) to enter, to get in

急ぐ (いそぐ) — (verb) to hurry

一緒に (いっしょに) — (adverbial phrase) together

頂く (いただく) — (verb) to receive (humble)

いたい — (adjectival verb) painful; (interjection) “Ouch!”

いつ — (adverb) when?

いつだって — (adverbial expression) always

いつまでも — (adverb) forever

言う (いう) — (verb) to say

いや — (noun) disagreeable [na]; (interjection) “Oh no!” “Eww!”

嫌み (いやみ) — (noun) disagreeableness

じゃ — (conjunction) “well then,” contraction of では

じゃない — (verbal expression) used as a dubitative ending particle, equivalent to ね

じゃれる — (verb) to be amused

時 (じ) — (suffix) hour

事故 (じこ) — (noun) accident, incident

神社 (じんじゃ) — (noun) shrine, usually Shinto

嬢 (じょう) — (noun) young lady

純情 (じゅんじょう) — (noun) pure heart, naïveté [na]

か — (ending particle) interrogative ending particle, can be used rhetorically and indirectly

帰る (かえる) — (verb) to return (home)

輝く (かがやく) — (verb) to glitter, to shine

かぎる (かぎる) — (verb) to limit, to confine

解決 (かいてつ) — (noun) settlement, conclusion [suru]

懸ける (かける) — (verb) to hang; to put on the line

かっこいい — (adjectival verb) cool

過去 (かこ) — (noun) past

仮面 (かめん) — (noun) mask

関係 (かんけい) — (noun) connection

関係ない (かんけいない) — (verbal expression) “It’s none of your business” “It’s has nothing to do with you”

顔 (かお) — (noun) face [suru]

かおり — (noun) arome, fragrance

から — (conjunction) because

体 (からだ) — (noun) body

かしら — (ending particle) I wonder…

方 (かた) — (suffix) way of, manner of

肩 (かた) — (noun) shoulder

片付ける (かたづける) — (verb) to put in order; to settle (a dispute)

かわる (かわる) — (verb) to take the place of, to substitute

数える (かぞえる) — (verb) to count

決着 (けっちゃく) — (noun) conclusion, settlement [suru]

決着をつける (けっちゃくをつける) — (verbal expression) to settle a dispute

けど — (conjunction) though; but

けが — (noun) wound, injury [suru]

きっちり— (adverb) punctually, on time, without fail

危機 (きき) — (noun) danger [no]

君 (きみ) — (pronoun) second-person pronoun, masculine tone

きのう — (noun) yesterday

記憶 (きおく) — (noun) memory, recollection

貴様 (きさま) — (pronoun) second-person pronoun, vulgar tone

奇跡的 (きせきてき) — (noun) miraculous [na]

キス — (noun) kiss

きっと— (adverb) surely, certainly

傷 (きず) — (noun) wound, injury

こ — (noun) child, young girl

恋 (こい) — (noun) love; passion

ここ — (pronoun) here

ここら — (pronoun) somewhere around here

心得る (こころえる) — (verb) to be informed, to understand

今度 (こんど) — (noun) nowadays, these days, later (but soon)

これ — (pronoun) this (thing)

ころ — (suffix) time, around, about

殺す (ころす) — (verb) to kill

こそ — (suffix) adds emphasis

こと — (noun) thing; substanitvizing noun

こういう — (adverb) such a thing, equivalent to こんな or こう

雲 (くも) — (noun) cloud

君 (くん) — (address suffix) used for young men

くらい — (suffix) around, about; almost

くれる — (verb) to give; (with Te-form) from someone (subject of the sentence) to do something to the benefit of the speaker (see also もらう and あげる)

黒焦げ (くろこげ) — (noun) a burnt black thing [suru]

苦労 (くろう) — (noun) troubles, hardships [na]

来る (くる) — (verb) to come

車 (くるま) — (noun) car

狂う (くるう) — (verb) to be amiss

くそっ — (interjection) “Shit” “Damn it”

くつ — (noun) shoes

食う (くう) — (verb) to eat

詳しい (くわしい) — (adjectival verb) detailed

きょう — (noun) today

恐怖 (きょうふ) — (noun) fear, dismay

強行突破 (きょうこうとっぱ) — forcing one’s way through [suru]

幻 (まぼろし) — (noun) phantom, legend, dream

間違い (まちがい) — (noun) mistake

惑わす (まどわす) — (verb) to puzzle, to perplex

前 (まえ) — (noun) before, previous

まいる (まいる) — (verb) to come; to go (humble)

任せる (まかせる) — (verb) to entrust to someone

まま — (dependent noun) still, as of yet

守る (まもる) — (verb) to protect

万華鏡 (まんげきょう) — (noun) kaleidoscope

まんまと — (adverb) thoroughly, successfully

まさか — (interjection) “No way” “Could it be” Expresses doubt about some conjecture

また — (adverb) still; again; also | (expression) “until then,” “see you later”

瞬き (またたき) — (noun) twinkling [suru]

待つ (まつ) — (verb) to wait

まわる — (verb) to turn, to revolve

まずい — (adjectival verb) horrible

目 (め) — (suffix) ordinal number suffix (-st, -nd, -rd, -th)

め — (suffix) derogatory/derisive suffix, damned

命令 (めんれい) — (noun) order; command

目覚める (めざめる) — (verb) to wake up

導く (みちびく) — (verb) to guide, to lead

見守る (みまもる) — (verb) to watch over

みんな — (pronoun) everybody, everyone, all

見る (みる) – (verb) to look at, to see

みたい (みたい) — (suffix) looking like, seeming like

もはや (もはや) — (verb) already; now

木星 (もくせい) — (noun) Jupiter (planet)

問題 (もんだい) — (noun) problem, question

もらう — (verb) to receive; (with Te-form) for someone (marked by dative or から) to do something that benefits the speaker (see also あげる and くれる)

もしかして — (adverb) probably, perhaps

もっと — (adverb) more

もう — (adverb) already; more; again

巡り会う (むぐりあう) — (verb) to meet fortuitously

虫けら (むしけら) — (noun) insect, worm, used often as an insult

娘 (むすめ) — (noun) girl; daughter

な — (pseudo-copula) used by nouns to become verb phrases that can modify noun, often called an adjectival suffix

など — (suffix) etc., and the like, among other things

長い (ながい) — (adjectival verb) long

中 (なか) — (noun) inside; the middle

泣く(なく) — (verb) to cry

なんで — (adverbial expression) why?; by what means?

何度 (なんど) — (adverb) how many times?

何度も (なんども) — (adverb) many times

何 (なに/なん) — (pronoun) what?

何か (なにか) — (adverb) anything

なにゆえ — (adverbial expression) why? how?

なんて — (suffix) such a thing like; of all things, dismissive suffix

治す (なおす) — (verb) to heal

なら — (conjunction) if

鳴らす (ならす) — (verb) to ring, to chime, to make a sound

なる — (verb) to become

なぜ — (adverb) why? how?

ね — (ending suffix) dubitative: right?, no?, isn’t it?; desires a confirmation from the listener | Variant: な

年中無休 (ねんじゅうむきゅう) — (noun) every day of the year [no]

二 (に) — (number) two

逃げる (にげる) — (verb) to run away

虹 (にじ) — (noun) rainbow

肉まん (にくまん) — (noun) meat-filled steam bun

偽 (にせ) — (prefix) imitation, pseudo-

二年生 (にんせんせい) — (noun) second year student; in Japan you are a second year student once in elementary, in middle school, and in high school. In each school division the counting of grades resets

によると — (adverbial expression) according to

の/ん — (dependent noun) substantivizing dependent noun, often used at the end of sentences like an ending particle but generally devoid of meaning

昇る (のぼる) — (verb) to rise, to go up

のこと — (suffix) used mostly for nouns that are people when they are objects of verbs

のみ — (suffix) only, nothing but

乗り込む (のりこむ) — (verb) to embark on; to enter, to march into

のろま — (noun) blockhead, dunce

覚える (おぼえる) — (verb) to remember; to memorize

落ち込む (おちこむ) — (verb) to become very sad, to feel down

お出で (おいで) — (verbal expression) come

おかしい — (adjectival verb) funny, strange

起こす — (verb) to wake up; to cause

置く (おく) – (verb) to place; (with Te-form) to do something for future benefit

お前 (おまえ) — (pronoun) second-person pronoun, masculine tone

思い出す (おもいだす) — (verb) to recall, to remember

思う (おもう) — (verb) to think; to regard (as)

同じ (おなじ) — (noun) the same (as)

お願い (おねがい) — (noun) request | (interjection) “Please”

大いなる (おおいなる) — (verbal expression) big, large

俺 (おれ) — (pronoun) first-person pronoun, masculine tone

おしおき — (noun) punishment [suru]

遅い (おそい) — (adjectival verb) late; slow

おっと — (interjection) “Sorry,” “Hold up,” “Oops”

おやすみなさい — (verbal expression) “Good night,” “Rest”

ピンチ — (noun) a pinch, a desperate situation

ら — (suffix) causal pluralizing suffix

らしい — (adjectival verbal suffix) seeming

らっしゃい — (suffix) polite imperative, from らっしゃる, a honorific form of いる

六 (ろく) — (number) six

両親 (りょうしん) — (noun) both parents

さ — (suffix) exclamatory suffix

さえ — (suffix) emphasizes the most important part of the sentence

捜す (さがす) — (verb) to search for

歳 (さい) — (suffix) years old

最上階 (さいじょうかい) — (noun) top floor (of a building)

さま (さま) — (address suffix) used for people of the highest of ranks, not at all common in day-to-day speech

さん — (address suffix) general address suffix

さらば — (interjection) farewell

ささげる — (verb) to give oneself; to consecrate

さっさと — (adverb) quickly

さようなら — (interjection) goodbye (forever)

せい — (noun) cause, reason; fault

正々堂々 (せいせいどうどう) — (adverb) fair and square

星座 (せいざ) — (noun) constellation

世界 (せかい) — (noun) world

せっかち — (adverb) hasty, impatient

せっかく — (adverb) long awaited; at last

先生 (せんせい) — (address suffix) for a teacher, doctor, esteemed writer; (noun) teacher; doctor

戦士 (せんし) — (noun) soldier

説明 (せつめい) — (noun) explanation [suru]

し — (suffix) marks a reason in an inexhaustible list of reasons

死 (し) — (noun) death

しあわせ — (noun) happiness; happy [na]

支配者 (しはいしゃ) — (noun) governor, ruler

しっかり — (noun) steady, leveled; level headed [suru]

思考回路 (しこうかいろ) — (noun) pattern of thought

始末 (しまつ) — (noun) management; settlement [suru]

しまう — (verb) to do something completely, (with Te-form) to do something that proves to be inconvenient — often contracted to ちゃう

信じる (しんじる) — (verb) to believe (in), to have faith (in)

心配 (しんぱい) — (noun) worry, concern [suru]

死ぬ (しぬ) — (verb) to die

調べる (しらべる) — (verb) to examine, to investigate

白い (しろい) — (adjectival verb) white

知る (しる) — (verb) to know

ショート — (noun) short

勝負 (しょうぶ) — (noun) match, contest; fight [suru]

正体 (しょうたい) — (noun) natural form; secret identity

守護 (しゅご) — (noun) protection, safeguard [suru]

集合 (しゅうごう) — (noun) gathering, assembly [suru]

主役 (しゅやく) — (noun) leading part (in a drama)

そこ — (pronoun) there

そんな — (pseudo-adjective) such a thing

その — (pseudo-adjective) that

そのうえ — (adverbial expression) on top of that, furthermore

それから — (adverbial expression) after that, because of that

それぞれ — (noun) each, every [no]

そして — (conjunction) then, and then

そう — (adverb) so

そう —  (suffix) seeming like

そういう — (adverb) equivalent to そう or そんな or その

すぎる — (verb) to overdo

すぐ — (noun) soon; at once

水晶 (すいしょう) — (noun) crystal

スカタン — (noun) fool

住む (すむ) — (verb) to reside, to live (somewhere)

素直 (すなお) — (noun) meek, docile, tame [na]

寸前 (すんぜん) — (suffix) on the verge of, almost

する — (verb) to do

すてき (すてき) — (noun) amazing, wonderful [na]

すずしい — (adjectival verb) cool

たち — (suffix) pluralizer, formal tone

ただし — (conjunction) however; provided that

大変 (たいへん) — (noun) difficult, grave [na]

たくらむ — (verb) to scheme

ため(に) — (adverbial expression) in order to

だんご (だんご) — (noun) mochi dumpling

倒す (たおす) – (verb) to defeat

確かに (たしかに) — (adverbial expression) surely, certainly

助かる (たすかる) — (verb) to be saved; to be rescued

手出し (てだし) — (noun) meddling, interfering [suru]

手口 (てぐち) — (noun) trick

停電 (ていでん) — (noun) power outage [suru]

敵 (てき) — (noun) enemy

展望室 (てんぼうしつ) — observation deck/floor

手に入れる (てにいれる) — (verbal expression) to obtain

手の内 (てのうち) — (noun) palm of the hand

手遅れ (ておくれ) — (noun) being too late; belated treatment

と — (conjunction) if

扉 (とびら) — (noun) gate, door

とどめる — (verb) to stop, to put an end to | (verbal stem) とどめ, the finisher, the final blow

時 (とき) — (noun) time

所 (ところ) — (noun) place

ところで — (adverbial expression) by the way

とにかく — (adverb) at any rate, in any case

とりあえず — (adverb) for now, for the time being; at once

取り戻す (とりもどす) — (verb) to get back, to regain

取り留める (とりとめる) — (verb) to put a stop to

登場 (とうじょう) — (noun) appearance [suru]

続ける (つづける) — (verb) to continue

償う (つぐなう) — (verb) to make up for; to pay for

ついに — (adverbial expression) at last

ついてくる — (verb) to follow

使う (つかう) — (verb) to use

月 (つき) — (noun) moon

つく — (verb) to begin

罪 (つみ) — (noun) crime, fault

頬 (つら) — (noun) face; cheek

連れる (tsureru) — (verb) to take (someone)

伝える (つたえる) — (verb) to convey, to communicate

通じる (つうじる) — (verb) to connect, to lead to; to communicate

通信機 (つうしんき) — (noun) communication device

奪い取る (うばいとる) — (verb) to plunder, to snatch away

動く (うごく) — (verb) to move

受けて立つ (うけてたつ) — (verb) to accept a challenge

生まれる (うまれる) – (verb) to be born

恨み (うらみ) — (noun) grudge, resentment

うれしい — (adjectival verb) happy

占う (うらなう) — (verb) to forecast, to predict

うそ — (noun) lie

わ (wa) — (ending particle) feminine ending particle, does not have much meaning

わが — (pronoun) first-person genitive particle: my, our

別れる (わかれる) — (verb) to be separated

分かる (わかる) — (verb) to understand, to know

わな — (noun) trap

我 (われ)— (pronoun) first-person pronoun, largely archaic

悪い (わるい) — (adjectival pronoun) bad

忘れる (わすれる) — (verb) to forget

わたる (わたる) — (verb) to cross over

私 (わたし) — (noun) first-person pronoun, polite — Variant: あたし, cruder effeminate tone

約束 (やくそく) — (noun) promise; arrangement, appointment

やる (やる) — (verb) to do, to kill; (with Te-form) makes the action’s tone a tougher sounding

やつ — (pronoun) that thing, that guy

よ (yo) — (ending particle) emphatic ending particle, conveys that this is information the speaker wants the listener to keep in mind

呼び戻す (よびもどす) — (verb) to call back

よい (よい) — (adjectival verb) good

予感 (よかん) — (noun) premonition [suru]

よく — (adverb) well, a lot — from よい

よくも — (expression) “how dare you!”

よろしく — (adverb) well, a lot — from よろしい | (expression) short for よろしくおねがいします, meaning something like “I ask of profusely (to treat me well)” this is equivalent to English’s “A pleasure to meet you.”

用 (よう) — (noun) use; business; duty

よう — (dependent noun) like, form

ようこそ — (interjection) “Welcome!”

行方 (ゆくえ) — (noun) whereabouts

夢 (ゆめ) — (noun) dream

夕方 (ゆうがた) — (noun) evening

勇敢 (ゆうかん) — (noun) brave, gallant [na]

残念 (ざんねん) — (noun) deplorable [na]

ぜ — (ending particle) strong emotional ending particle

全部 (ぜんぶ) — (adverb) all, whole

ぞ — (ending particle) strong emotional ending particle; used often to express cohortative statements or imperative statements

存分に (ぞんぶんに) — (adverbial expression) to one’s heart’s content

絶対 (ぜったい) — (adverb) absolutely, unconditionally, of course

ずっと — (adverb) continuously, all throughout

“Hohoemi no Bakudan” Vocabulary Page

Verb Conjugations

Truncation- Truncation is when a part of the suffixes needed for conjugation is dropped out. Truncations tend to be /i/’s from iru and iku dropping out.

Periphrastic Progressive- Periphrastic refers to a conjugation involving more than one verb, where one of the verbs is not really being used semantically but functionally for a conjugation. Progressive is a matter of aspect, referring to how we imagine actions occurring through time. Japanese verbs tend to be simple in aspect, “He eats,” “She sang.” Progressive aspect is more akin to “He is eating,” “She was singing.” In Japanese, you create progressive aspect with the Te-form and the copula iru.


Indicative- describes something that either did, does, or will happen in time

Potential- describes something that can or cannot happen

Desiderative- describes a desire for something to happen

Imperative- describes a command

Volitional- describes a desire for the speaker, or for the listener, to do something. It can act as an equivalent to an imperative, or as a cohortative, which expresses a call for both the speaker and the listener to do something.

Japanese has 2 suffixes we’ll call imperatives

1st Imperative- -e suffix

2nd Imperative- -nasai suffix

Conditional- posits the condition for an occurrence. These act more like lexical suffixes than they do functional suffixes because they appear as the last suffix, not the first

-eba Conditional – focuses of the condition

-tara Conditional – focuses on the result


Active- The subject does the action

Passive- The subject is done something by an agent, normally in the dative


Affirmative- the verb’s action is true or real

Negative- the verb’s action is untrue or unreal


Imperfect- the action happens in the present or in the future

Perfect- the action has already occurred


Te-form a special conjugation for verbs, which tends to end in -te, whereby the verb can perform some special functions

1) Conjunctive- the verb identities itself as one in a sequence of actions. (When a Te-form verb attaches itself to another verb immediately thereafter, as is often the case with oku, ageru, kureru, morau, and shimau, it is essentially performing a conjunctive function.)

2) Gerund- the verb phrase acts like a noun

3) Imperative- the verb is a command

4) Conditional/Temporal- in this case, the Te-form is acting a lot like a participle. It refers to a state or condition in which the action is done.


あげる (ageru) — (verb) to give; [with Te-form] to do X for that person’s benefit, that person not being the speaker or his/her cohorts.

ありがとう (arigatou) — (verbal expression) Thank you. It has many variants, including the more formal どうもありがとうございます (doumo arigatou gozaimasu), which involves an adverb and a verb, and the shorter ありがと (arigato).

ある (aru) — (verb) copula. This copula is used for non-animated objects. It, and iru, are used to express the existence of a thing. The negative pole of aru is nai. [With Te-form] to be left X, to be set up as X, to be in the state of X

ばくだん (bakudan) — (noun) bomb

場所 (basho) — (noun) place

ぶち壊す (buchikowasu) — (verb) to destroy

ぶつかる (butsukaru) — (verb) to bump into

ビュンビュン (byun byun) — (adverb) whirling, describing the sound of the rushing wind [to]

ちょっぴり (choppiri) — (adverb) small, a small bit, hopelessly insignificant

だ (da) — (verb) copula, to be. This is the copula that connects and categorizes two things. “X ga Y da.” translates to “X is Y.” The attributive form of this copula is no.

だって (datte) — (conjunction) although, even though

だろう (darou) — (verbal expression – ending particle) expresses that the sentence is some kind of a conjecture or idea. It is not too different from the dubitative particle ne.

どっち (docchi) — (pronoun) which one? which?

ふい (fui) — (noun) sudden, unexpected

二つ (futatsu) — (counter) two (general object counter)

が (ga) — (case particle) nominative particle. The nominative case mainly marks the subject of an inflexional phrase. It will on occasion mark the direct object of a verb in an emphatic sense.

元気 (genki) — (noun) energetic, lively, well

微笑み (hohoemi) — (noun) smile

イコール (ikooru) — (noun) equals sign

今 (ima) — (adverb) now

いつまでも (itsumademo) —(adverb) forever

果てる (hateru) — (verb) to end, to reach its limit

人v (hito) — (noun) person. Pluralizing suffix: -tachi (達)

人ぐみ (hitogumi) — (noun) crowd of people

ひとりぼっち (hitoribocchi) — (noun) loneliness, solitude [no]

壁 (kabe) — (noun) wall, barrier

回 (kai) — (counter) times

書く (kaku) — (verb) to write, to draw

隠す (kakusu) — (verb) to hide

肩 (kata) — (noun) shoulder

風 (kaze) — (noun) wind

数 (kazu) — (noun) number

きびしい (kibishii) — (adjectival verb) stern, strict

唇 (kuchibiru) — (noun) lips

比べる (kuraberu) — (verb) to compare

来る (kuru) — (verb) to come, [with Te-form] to come to X, to start to X

苦しい (kurushii) — (adjectival verb) painful, difficult

まで (made) — (post-position) up to, to, until

まる (maru) — (noun) circle

メチャメチャ (mecha mecha) — (adverb) terribly, disturbingly, done to the extreme

見せる (miseru) – (verb) to show

泣く (naku) — (verb) to cry

何 (nani/nan) — (pronoun) what?

なる (naru) — (verb) to become; [with adverbial constructions] to start to X

なぜか (nazeka) — (adverb) for some reason, for whatever reason (this is the adverb naze with the indefinite suffix -ka)

ね (ne) — (ending particle) dubitative ending particle. Expresses a desire for a confirmation from the user. Often it will soften a statement. It is often translated to “right?” or “isn’t it?” Variant: な (na), じゃない (ja nai), verbal expression

に (ni) — (case particle) dative particle. The dative case marks the location for the copulae aru and iru. It marks the direction of verbs involving movement. It marks the exact time of an action. It marks the indirect object, and the direct object of certain verbs. It marks the manner in which something is done, this is the function that often gets translated adverbially.

の (no) — (case particle) genitive particle. The genitive case marks categorization or possession. It will in subordinating clauses at times mark the subject of the very subordinate clause. “X no Y” tends to translate to “Y of X” and even when it doesn’t it puts one in a good ballpark of what it should be.

の (no) — (dependent noun) a substantivizing dependent noun. It makes the preceding verb phrase syntactically a noun. Common variant: ん (n) One need not translate this lexically, but if one must, one might go with “the case is that” or “the fact of the matter is that” or something of that kind. These dependent nouns are used often to indicate a main point when found at the end of a sentence (and it is not really necessary otherwise.)

乗り越える (norikoeru) — (verb) to overcome, to surpass

多い (ooi) — (adjectival verb) numerous, (numerically) large, many

おとな (otona) — (noun) adult

り (ri) — (substantivizing suffix) lists items in a non-exhaustive list of items. The item list ends in suru.

さ (sa) — (suffix) adds an extra song emphasis on that word. It causes various cases particles to drop out.

さ (sa) — (substantivizing suffix) takes the place of the temporal/polar suffix in adjectival verbs to make them nouns.

叫ぶ (sakebu) — (verb) to cry, to shout

さようなら (sayounara) — (expression) from “sayou nara,” meaning “if [it is] so/like that” Used as a way of saying goodbye to someone for a very long time. Variant: さよなら (sayonara)

せい (sei) — (noun) cause, reason. Seen in “Xのせいだ “Due to X

草原 (sougen) — (noun) field, meadow

する (suru) — (verb) to do

楽しい (tanoshii) — (adjectival verb) fun

と (to) — (particle) quotative particle, marks quotations of thoughts, speech, hearings, etc.

と (to) — (inflection particle) comitative particle. The comitative case marks the person with whom something is done. It has limited uses. It also serves as a parallel conjunctive function, which will translate to “and.

都会 (tokai) — (noun) city

時 (toki) — (noun) time

つける (tsukeru) — (verb) to affix, to add, to draw a simple figure for non-aesthetic purposes (like a line on a map.)

裏側 (uragawa) — (noun) backside, behind

は (wa) — (case particle) topical particle. The topical case marks the topic of the sentence. In certain cases, mostly when the topic and the subject of the sentence are on a semantic level the same, in translation, the topical phrase is made into the subject (Japanese sentences do not need a subject. Many other languages, such as English, do.)

忘れる (wasureru) — (verb) to forget.

を (wo) — (case particle) accusative particle. The accusative case mainly marks the direct object of a verb. It will on a few occasions mark a thing through which another thing has moved.

やさしい (yasashii) — (adjectival verb) kind, gentle

よ (yo) — (ending particle) emphatic ending particle. Marks extra intensity, or marks new information brought to the conversation

よろしく (yoroshiku) — (greeting expression) from yoroshii, meaning “good.” A truncation of  “yoroshiku onegai shimasu” よろしくおねがいします  meaning “I request well,” which is a way to say “I ask you to treat me well.” It is the conclusive expression when one is introducing oneself.

“Hohoemi no Bakudan” from Yu Yu Hakusho

This is “Hohoemi no Bakudan,” the theme song of Yu Yu Hakusho, by Matsuko Mawatari

When compared to “Bokura wa Ima no Maka de,” this runthough is divided into 3 different pages. This is the Master Page. This is the page with the song and all the links.

Clicking the words will take you to the Vocabulary Page, where you can read the definitions of the words.

Clicking the numbers takes you to the Parsing Page, where we give you the transliteration, a crude translation, and notes on how to interpret the verses.


1. 都会人ごみ ぶつかって ひとりぼっち
2. 果てない草原 ビュビュン ひとりぼっち
3. どっちだろう 泣きたくなる場所
4. 二つマルつけて ちょっぴりオトナ

5. メチャメチャ苦しいだって ふい なぜか
6. ぶち壊す 勇気POWER 湧いてくる
7. メチャメチャきびしい人達 ふい 見せた
8. やさし せいだった するだろう

9. ア・リ・ガ・ト・ウ・ゴ・ザ・イ・ます

10. まで ヨロシク元気 叫んだだろう
11. まで サヨナラ泣いて 別れただろう
12. どっちだろう 比べて多い
13. イコール書いて ちょっぴりオトナ

14. メチャメチャ悲しいときだって ふい なぜか
15. 乗り越える 勇気POWER 湧いてくる
16. メチャメチャやさしい人達 ふい 見せた
17. きびし せいだった するだろう

18. ア・リ・ガ・ト・ウ・ゴ・ザ・イ・ます

19. メチャメチャ苦しいだって ふい なぜか
20. ぶち壊す 勇気POWER 湧いてくる
21. メチャメチャきびしい人達 ふい 見せた
22. やさし せいだった するだろう

23. ア・リ・ガ・ト・ウ・ゴ・ザ・イ・ます

24. メチャメチャ楽しいときだって 忘れない
25. いつまでも 勇気POWER なくさない
26. メチャメチャひとりぼっち あげる
27.  裏側 隠してある

28. ホ・ホ・エ・ミバ・ク・ダン


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“Hohoemi no Bakudan” Parsing Page

1.都会人ごみ ぶつかって ひとりぼっち
(Tokai no hitogumi  kata ga butsukatte  hitoribocchi )
(A city’s crowd of people   hit one’s shoulder, and   [there is] loneliness)

This song uses various phrases and does not really connect them. That task is left to the listener. In that sense, it is a lot like a poem.

The first two verses suggest complete ideas. We will suggest you take ″tokai no hitogumi” to be the subject of “kata ga bustsukatte.” Then we suggest you consider the ga in this phrase to be marking the direct object.

The Te-form conjugation of butsukatte we are taking to be conjunctive.

2.果てない草原 ビュビュン ひとりぼっち
(Hatenai sougen  kaze ga byu byun to  hitoribocchi)
(An endless meadow  the wind whirling  [there is] loneliness)

We suggest you interpret ″hatenai sougen” to be the location of the action.

byu byun tends to be written as byun byun. It doesn’t have a verb to attach itself to. It tends to attach itself to tobasu, meaning “to fly.”

3. どっちだろう 泣きたくなる場所
(Docchi darou  nakitaku naru basho wa)
(Which one, I wonder?  As for a place where I want to start to cry)

We suggest you invert the order of these two phrases if you want to make sense of them. Then you can see more clearly that this says something akin to “As to a place where I want to begin to why, which one [is it,] I wonder?”

Nakitaku is the desactaffimp-adverbial conjugation of naku

4.二つマルつけて ちょっぴりオトナ
(Futatsu maru wo tsukete  choppiri otona sa)
([I] draw two circles, and  a small adult!)

This verse is a tad harder to figure out. We will suggest you take “chobbiri otona sa” to be the subject: “A small adult (!) draws two circles, and” Alternatively, you can maintain the order and then say “I draw two circles, and [I am] a small adult.” To us the former makes more sense.

The Te-form conjugation of tsukete we are taking to be conjunctive.

5.メチャメチャ苦しいだって ふい なぜか
(Mecha mecha kurushii kabe datte  fui ni  nazeka)
(Although [it] is a terribly painful wall  Suddenly  For some reason)

This is the first verse that, uses that depends on the following to create a cohesive idea. We will suggest a meaning in the next verse.

6.ぶち壊す 勇気POWER 湧いてくる
(Buchikowasu  yuuki to POWER  waite kuru no wa)
([It] destroys [it]  courage and power  As for it starting to well up)

We suggest reading it in this order: ″Mecha mecha kurushii kabe datte yuuki to POWER [wo] fui ni nazeka waite kureru no wa buchikowasu” Thus it will say “Although [it] is a terribly painful wall, as for courage and power starting to up suddenly for some reason, [it] destroys [the wall].”

Note the lack of a case particle for ″yuuki to POWER,” which is would take the nominative ga.

7.メチャメチャきびしい人達 ふい 見せた
(Mecha Mecha kibishii hitotachi ga  fui ni  miseta)
(The terribly strict people  suddenly  [they] showed)

This same story as the last two verses. In fact, it carries a similar structure. We will suggest a meaning in the next verse.

8.やさし せいだった するだろう
(Yasashi-sa no sei dattari  suru n darou ne)
([it is] a due to the kindness, among other things, it seems, right?)

“X no sei da” means “to be due to X.” The -ri suffix, which attaches itself to the indactaffperf conjugation, marks itself in a non-exhaustive list. At the end of the items, one uses suru, regardless of what the verbs used in the list are.

The n is the substantivizing dependent noun. It is equivalent to the no that has the same function.

So, we suggest you read this as “Mecha mecha kibishii hitotachi ga yasashi-sa no sei dattari suru no [ni] fui ni nazeka miseta.” “The terribly strict people showed [it] suddenly being due to kindness, among other things, it seems.”

We had to supply a dative ni, expressing the manner in which it was done. It might not be this, but something does have to go at the end of that phrase if we are to reorder it.

If you decide to not reorder the phrases, you get “The terribly strict people showed [it] suddenly [;] it is the case that it is due to kindness, among other things, it seems.” That, too makes sense.

(A  ri  ga  to  u  go  za  i  masu!)
(Thank you!)

10.まで ヨロシク元気 叫んだだろう
(Ima made nankai  yoroshiku to genki ni  sakenda darou)
(Until now, how many times  “Well!” energetically  [they] shouted, I wonder)

This verse, as with the following have a quotation separated from the verb (it does not immediately precede the verb,) which is perfectly fine, albeit a tad uncommon.

11.まで サヨナラ泣いて 別れただろう
(Ima made nankai sayonara to naite  wakareta  darou)
(Until now, how many times  with “goodbye” [we] cried, and  parted, I wonder)

The Te-form conjugation naite is conjunctive.

The to here we are translating as the comitative case particle, but you can make the case that it is the quotative particle (you can also sort of make the case that the quotative and comitative particle are one in the same ultimately, but let’s not get into that.) In that case, there will be an omitted verb, maybe 1sakebu or 1iu.

12.どっちだろう 比べて多い
(docchi darou  kurabete ooi kazu wa)
(Which one, I wonder  [I] compare, and, as for the large number)

We will suggest you read this as “Ooi kazu wa kurabete docchi darou.” “As for a large number, when I compare, which one will it be?” TheTe-form conjugation kurabete here is acting conditionally/temporally, which is something theTe-form does from time to time.

Japanese has very different ways of expressing comparatives from English. Japanese tends to say “Between X and Y, which one is Z?” Where Z is a characteristic shared by X and Y, but one has to choose which one has more Z. Here what is being suggested is that there are two numbers and that when compared, which will be the bigger number. So you can translate this as “If I compare [two] numbers, which will be biggest.”

13.イコール書いて ちょっぴりオトナ
(Ikooru kaite  choppiri otona sa )
([I] write an equal sign, and  a small adult!)

As with Verse 4, we will suggest you take ″choppiri otona sa” as the subject.

14. メチャメチャ悲しいときだって ふい なぜか
(Mecha mecha kanashii toki datte  fui ni   nazeka)
(Even though [it is] a terribly sad time  suddenly  for some reason)

This is like Verse 5.

15.乗り越える 勇気POWER 湧いてくる
(Norikoeru  yuuki to POWER  waite kuru no wa )
([it] surpasses  courage and POWER  as for the starting to well up)

This is like Verse 6. In fact, it’s pretty much the same structure. So read this as “Mecha mecha kanashii toki datte yuuki to POWER [ga] waite kuru no wa fui ni nazeka norikoeru.” “Even though [it is] a terribly sad time, as for the courage and power staring to well up, [it] suddenly for some reason suprasses [it].”

16. メチャメチャやさしい人達 ふい 見せた
(Mecha mecha yasashii hitotachi ga fui ni  miseta)
(The terribly kind people  suddenly  [they] showed)

This is the same as Verse 7, except that yasashii and kibishii are inverted.

17.きびし せいだった するだろう
(kibishisa no sei dattari  suru n darou ne)
(Due to the strictness, among other things  I wonder, right?)

As with Verses 7 and 8, you can take this as “The terribly kind people showed [it] suddenly being due to strickness, among other things, it seems.” or “The terribly kind people showed [it] suddenly [;] it is the case that it is due to strictness, among other things, it seems.”

(A  ri  ga  to  u  go  za  i  masu!)
(Thank you!)

19.メチャメチャ苦しいだって ふい なぜか
(Mecha mecha kurushii kabe datte  fui ni  nazeka)
(Although [it is] terribly painful wall  suddenly  for some reason)

This is the same as Verse 5.

20.ぶち壊す 勇気POWER 湧いてくる
(Buchi kowasu yuuki to POWER  waite kuru no wa)
([It] destroys [it]  courage and POWER  as for the welling up)

This is the same as Verse 6.

21.メチャメチャきびしい人達 ふい 見せた
(Mecha mecha kibishii hitotachi ga  fui ni  miseta)
(The terribly sad people  suddenly  [they] show)

This is the same as Verse 7.

22.やさし せいだった するだろう
(Yasashisa no  sei dattari  suru n darou )
([it is] a due to the kindness, among other things, I wonder, right?)

This is the same as Verse 8.

(A  ri  ga  to  u  go  za  i  masu!)
(Thank you!)

24.メチャメチャ楽しいときだって 忘れない
(Mecha mecha tanoshii toki datte  wasurenai yo)
(Even though [it is] a terribly, fun time, [I] will not forget.)

Wasurenai is the indactnegimp conjugation of wasureru.

25.いつまでも 勇気POWER なくさない
(Itsumademo  yuuki to POWER  nakusanai yo)
(Forever  courage and POWER  [I] will not lose [it])

Because itsumademo is modifying the indactnegimp conjugation of nakusu, in translation it will appear as “never.” “[I] will not lose courage and power forever,” more properly translates to “[I] will never lose courage and power forever.”

Note that we’re taking ″yuuki to POWER” as being the objects of nakusanai.

26. メチャメチャひとりぼっち あげる
(Mecha mecha hitoribocchi no hito ni  ageru)
(To terribly lonely people  [I] will give [it])

27. 裏側 隠してある
(Kuchibiru no  uragawa ni  kakushite aru)
([Is] is left hidden behind one’s lips)

Note the Te-form plus the copula aru. This is a special construction meaning, essentially “to be in a state of” implying that it has been set as such. We like to translate it as “to be left X.”

(Ho  ho  e  mi  no  ba  ku  dan!)
(A smile bomb!)